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Schoenfeld, Clay (ed.) / Wisconsin alumnus
Volume 49, Number 9 (June 1948)

Summers, Robert
These professors bust crime,   pp. 14-15


Page 15


University of Iowa and did resea
at the Iowa State reformatory fro
1937 until 1941. In 1941 Dr. Clinar
gave up teaching temporarily to becom
the Chief of Criminal Statistics wth
the U. S. Bureau of Census in Wash
ington D. C. and in 1942 he was made
Chief of the Analysis and Repot
Branch in the Department of      P
Eforemetdokigo:heaayi
for equipment and housing, and the
other a lapsing fund of $70,000 for
items such as salaries, operational ex-
penditures and office maintenance. The
new director, Charles M. Wilson, will
be accountable to the state crime board
appointed by Governor Rennebohm and
including Pres. E. B. Fred of the Uni-
versity.)
  The second phase of the UW attack
on the circle of crime is the more im-
portant as it is directed both at the
root and the ultimate end of crime it-
self; namely the society in which it
starts and the prisons where it ends.
  The department of sociology not only
turns out MA's and PhD's to teach and
do research in criminology, but it also
has set up a curriculum in correctional
administration specifically designedto
train men and women in the fieldof
general institutional work. In other
words Wisconsin is training future pro-
fessors, and research workers in crim-
inology, wardens, classification person-
nel, and parole and probation workers.
  To John P. Gillin, former chairman
of the department, now retired, this
program is a dream come true, a dream
which started 35 years ago. Dr. Gillin,
although past 70, is fired with the
youthful enthusiasm which is so typical
of men who have pioneered in their
fields. Even after 35 years Dr. Gillin
is, as he puts it, "an optimist", be-
cause now he can see the results of his
work. Even though at times, he remem-
bers, "it moved at only glacial speed."
The credit for the success of the project
Dr. Gillin places with the men who
are today instructing in the various
courses which make up the program.
They are Carl E. Johnson and Mar-
shall B. Clinard.
   Dr. Clinard is instructing in the
 theory of criminology with particular
 emphasis on the causes of crime. His
 qualifications certainly fit him for that
                            . ..  he
   * An exclusive Alumnus
   report on what the Uni-
   versity of Wisconsin is
   doing in crime detec-
   tion, criminology, and
   penology.
the general breakdown in ethics cover-
ing all social groups in our society,
and you have some of the factors that
produce criminals. They are not a prod-
uct of one situation or one class; they
can be found among politicians, busi-
ness and other professional men as
well. If you want examples, he says,
take the extreme black market opera-
tions during the war, and the war
frauds which   are only now    being
brought to light.
  Knowing these facts, we can see that
the solution to the problem lies mainly
in prevention and pressure. This can
be attained through public discussion
in informal community organizations
such as neighborhood councils. Crime in
the boy or man cannot be solved by
more police specialists but by the ordi-
nary citizens who understand the cause.
One of the answers is youth centers.
If a local center keeps one kid out of
every 20 on the right track it will have
paid for itself many times over. The
reasoning for this statement is this. It
costs at least from $600 to $1,000 per
year to keep a boy or man in a cor-
rectional institution. This figure does
not include advanced treatment or the
care of his family while he is confined.
Thus it is readily seen that community
councils and centers serve society well
and also contribute a fair rate of
return in relation to the investment.
  Dr. Clinard's theory, then, is mainly
prevention rather than police and pun-
ishment. The solution is in neighbor-
hood councils and community organiza-
tion. The attack needs to be directed at
the child which must be snapea ana
fitted into a place in society. Children
are made into criminals by social fac-
tors.
DR. JOSEPH IHL MATHEWS, '03, is nom-
inally head of the UW chemistry depart-
ment. But much of his time is spent
teaching and working on scientific crime
detection.
  Dr. Carl E. Johnson, MA'30, is in
charge of the second half of the de-
partment's two-pronged attack against
crime. His job is the practical side off
the course. Dr. Johnson, who has a
PhD in Education from Wisconsin and
was formerly director of education at
Wisconsin State Prison and 1 a t e r
deputy warden at that institution, has
had a good many years experience in
penology. His instruction prepares the
student for admiiiistrational work in
the field. The job of handling a man in
an institution so as to keep him from
becoming a "second offender" or even
a "three-time loser" is equally as im-
portant as the attempt at eliminating
the first offense. The task that has been
undertaken by Dr. Johnson is two-fold.
The first is instruction to under-grad-
uate and graduate students majoring in
correctional administration at the uni-
versity. The second consists of special
courses for custodial officers at the in-
stitutions.
Dr. Johnson's work with the prison
officials was initially a difficult step.
Few of the officials were prone to
believe the idea that men needed spe-
cial training to handle criminals. But
with the aid of specifications set up by
the Federal Bureau of Prisons the pro-
gram got under way. The first year at
Green Bay alone 24 men attended the
class taught by   Dr. Johnson. The
second year the attendance dropped to
17, but last year the number totaled 35.
Relations between the officials and the
inmates are stressed in these courses,
with great emphasis on the inmate as
an individual since in order to handle
him properly his situation and prob-
lems must be known. The plan is gain-
ing momentum in most of the state's
institutions now and although it is too
early to look for definite results it
promises to smooth out many of the
difficulties that have plagued our prison
system for a good many years.
  An attemnt is also being made to
reach the in-mate with an educational
program. Correspondence courses are
now available to them through the Uni-
versity Extension  Division. The
courses, although on a somewhat
limited basis at present, include many
subjects for which high school and col-
lege credits may be obtained. College
courses include English, Spanish, geog-
raphy, engineering, and harmony. High
school credits may be received by tak-
ing drawing, history, and mathematics.
The basic idea behind this program is
not to educate the man during the time
he is in the institution, (statistics show
that the I Q of criminals is as high or
higher than the average person) but
primarily to aid the man in helping
himself through a difficult period. If he
becomes interested in rebuilding him-
self and his life, the disciplinary rou-
tine of prison life will become more
bearable. Statements by responsible
prison officials to the effect that men
taking  this training conform  more
easily to rules and regulations, bear
this fact out.
  Although this phase of the program
is not yet as large as is desired it is
a great step in the right direction.
Compare it if you will, with the prison
educational program of a few short
years ago which was limited to illiter-
ates and included only reading and
writing.
                                  15
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