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Egstad, H. M. (ed.) / The Wisconsin alumni magazine
Volume 35, Number V (Feb. 1934)

Havard, John
Iron research,   p. 125


Page 125


    A/dL   pl eIoa     an /$eae          (ftTerlututme_
                                                    CWA La/
      A heat of High Test Iron being pouted from an electric furnace
                4y John Havard, '34
                (Courtesy of The Milwaukee Journal)
                                                               Richard S.
McCaffery, chairman of the mining and metal-
                                                               lurgy department,
and his associates.
 H      -OT METAL FLOWS in the laboratories of the          Some of the problems
merit special description.
       mining and metallurgical engineering department       Better automobile
frames, dish pans and what-not may
       at the University of Wisconsin nowadays, as skilled  result from experiments
being conducted on ways of testing
CWA    workers conduct experiments to aid Wisconsin's     steel sheets.
important foundry industry.                                      At present,
steel fabricators have no accurate means of
  Arcs roar over molten steel in electric furnaces. Red-  telling beforehand
how a cold-rolled sheet will behave
inking needles write down the story of silent induction   under various kinds
of die working. They buy, let us say,
furnace "heats." Ultra-violet rays are flashed, invisible, on 
a carload of cold-rolled sheets. They then try out a piece
polished steel surfaces. The entire laboratory, located out  under the rigorous
test of actual die-working. If the sheet
on the Camp Randall engineering campus, is alive with     fails, they reject
the carload. But, under Professor Mc-
activity.                                                     Caffery's supervision,
the CWA men have developed a
  One hundred and fourteen men are employed on CWA        simple device which,
as far as the laboratory work has gone,
research projects in the mining and metallurgy department  appears to effectively
test cold-rolled sheets and predict
alone. Iron and steel is not the only field being investi-  how they will
behave under die-working conditions. The
gated; ore flotation, brick and tile making, leather tanning  device, the
professor says, can be made automatic-to test
and other arts are undergoing study in some of their      and accept or reject
each sheet before it passes into the
special problems.                                             fabricating
machine, thus promoting both efficiency and
  However, it is fitting that much of this work should be  economy.
done on various aspects offoundry practice, for Wisconsin   A new standard
specification for grey iron has recently
is the first state in the nation in per capita production of  been proposed
by the American Society for Testing Ma-
iron, malleable iron, steel and non-ferrous castings. Among  terials, according
to which the iron is tested under tension
American cities, Milwaukee stands first in per capita output  instead of
cross-bending stresses.
of castings and sixth on a straight tonnage basis.          No definite comparison
has been made of the different
  Unemployed metallurgical engineers and foundry work-    values obtained
by the old and new methods. A number
ers are being directed in this research schedule by Prof.  of the most important
foundries in the State are sending
                                                                       special
test bars to the University for such a com-
                                                                       parison.
The CWA men are testing these bars
                                                                       both
under tension and cross bending, and in addi-
                                                                       tion
are making chemical and metallographic ana-
                                                                       lyses
of each sample. The resulting compilation of
                                                                       information
should prove highly valuable to all
                                                                       iron
and steel foundries.
At the same time, the department is running
                                                                       experimental
"heats" in the making of special
                                                                       high-test
iron. Some of this material is poured
                                                                       into
spiral molds for fluidity tests; some is made
                                                                _  Ad  _Vinto
test bars for tension and cross-bending tests
                                                                       to
be compared with those of ordinary iron; some
                                                                       is
being melted in a cupola furnace; some in an
                                                                       electric
furnace; and some is being "duplexed,"
                                                                       or
heated in a cupola and then super-heated in an
                                                                       electric
furnace before casting. All this work in-
                              - _-~- ad    00000000; a           o   volves
much chemical analysis, many mechanical
                                                                      tests
and the taking of hundreds of photomicro-
                                                                      graphs
(photographs made through a microscope).
Some of the problems that have baffled steel
                                                         CWA Lab Photo men
from the time they began really to know
             A metallographic at work on a tnetallorgical microscope    
     (Please turn to page 145)
                                                     Page 125


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