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Matthias, F. T. (ed.) / The Wisconsin engineer
Volume 33, Number VIII (May 1929)

Hainer, Fred W.
High pressure gas distribution,   p. 282


Page 282


Zaps                                  The WISCONSIN ENGIN-EER           
                           V(
A Solution Of The Problem Of Transportation
In The Natural Gas Industry Is
               High Pressure Gas Distribution
                               By FRED W. HAINER, Wisconsin Power and Light
Co.
T  HE initial reason for the transmission of gas by means
of high pressure pipe lines was the economical travers-
ing of distance in the natural gas field.     It was found
necessary to transport to the market large quantities of
gas from isolated and established sources of supply, and it
is safe to say that long distance transmission is an essential
part of the natural gas in-
dustry.  The United States
produces 95 % of the world's
supply of natural gas and
operates a total of 75,000
miles of high pressure lines,
30,000 miles being intercon-
nection lines and 45,000
miles transportation lines.
  Application of high pres-
sure distribution in the man-
ufactured gas industry is
justified  because it enables
us, first, to centralize pro-
duction in economical plants
              zarhihI-r- -  A
vvll.A1 dic I:1dVOldVly locateu
with respect to existing mar-    Constructing one of the Large
                                 which are becoming popular M
kets and, secondly, to pro-
)lume 33, No. &
serving Titusville, Pa. In 1891, Mr. Howell states that
two 8" lines were laid a distance of 120 miles from
gas wells in Greentown, Indiana, to Chicago, Ill. Gas was
transmitted to an initial pressure of 525 lbs. and mechanical
compression was used.    This enterprise marked the be-
ginning of long distance high pressure transmission in
                              the Unite-dStes
  In more recent years large
fields of natural gas have
been discovered in the south-
ern states, particularly Louis-
iana and Texas; and today
natural gas is being trans-
mitted in pipe lines up to
24" in diameter and at
higher pressure tha n for-
merly u s e d . Transmission
systems from the gas field to
distant markets are over 400
miles in length. One of the
more recent projects was the
,it"
vide a means of extending service to small communities
which could not be served as economically by individual
gas plants.
   With due allowance for distance limitations, the trans-
mission of gas for either of the above reasons is feasible.
As Mr. Samuel Insull has said, "It is simply a matter of
applying competent engineering and accurate arithmetic;
engineering to provide adquate production and transmission
facilities, arithmetic to uncover and prove the economic
factors." We must realize that the justification of a high
pressure system in any given locality depends entirely on
an engineering and economic study applied to the specific
conditions.
  There may be some value in considering briefly the
progress of high pressure practice in the past. Early devel-
opments in the natural gas fields of Pennsylvania finally
brought natural gas to many great industrial centers such
as; Buffalo, Pittsburgh, Cleveland, Youngstown, Cincinnati
and Toledo. According to Mr. Howell C. Cooper of the
Hope Natural Gas Company, Pittsburgh, the first pipe line
was laid in 1872 and consisted of 51/2 miles of 2" line
                              construction of 340 miles of
3ullet-shaped Pressure Holders  ,,         ,
h the Pressure Gas Industry.     20" and 22" pipe line from
                              Amarillo, Texas, to Denver,
Colorado, providing a capacity of 125,000,000 cubic feet
per day, or more than enough to supply the entire state
of Colorado.
  While application of high pressure transmission in the
manufactured gas business is comparatively new, we find
many pipe line systems which are extending every year.
  In our own state of Wisconsin we find that the total
length of high pressure mains approximates 475 miles.
Pipe line sizes range from 3" to 10". The total number
of gas production plants in Wisconsin is 30, while the
number of communities served with gas by means of high
pressure systems from these 30 producing centers is 102.
Ten of the production plants are applying high pressure
distribution to a certain extent.
  A typical high pressure system comprises one or more
centrally located production centers, with compressor units
feeding into a. network of transmission lines. These lines
run to outside communities where the gas is distributed
after reduction in pressure. Storage facilities are provided
                 (Continued on page 304)
I o,


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