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South African Voices

South African Voices: A Long Time Passed (2006)

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South African artwork

SAGRILI AND THE COMING OF WESTERN SCHOOLS

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Date:    September 18, 1967
Time:    About 12:30 p.m.
Place:    In a home in Mboxo (Nkanga) Location, Gatyana District, the Transkei
The Performance:    Related in Xhosa
Audience:    Thirty men, women, and children
Narrative 1S-682
Tape 14, side 1

The king wonders if Xhosa traditions will harmonize with Western-style education. A man tells the king that “time edges forward. And it's not enough just to hear one's name. One must also be able to identify it on paper.”

Ithi intsomi[725] ...'fuzo[726] lakwaXhosa...ekuqalekeni kokumiswa kwazo izinto nxa zizonke... kwathi ekubeni amadoda ehleli afuna okokuba kungathiwani na kuba yonke into ifuna umhlali ngaphambili...kuthe xa kuthethwa loo nto...kwathiwa ke kumele 'ze kuyiwe kumzi wakomkhulu...e— onguwo ikomkhulu lethu njengokokuba sihleli thina maXhosa kwaGcaleka...kuthe ke ngoko kuthethwa loo nto...kwathiwa makuthunywe abafana ababini...baye komkhulu bayokubuza okokuba ingathiwani na int' enje mhla kwakuza kumiswa isikolo ekuqalekeni kwemfundo...uba kubekho into esi sikolo...ingaziwa loo nto ngamaXhosa uba isikolo siyintoni na...kuthe ke abo bafana abo nxa kuhlanganiswene ngamadoda lawo...kwathiwa ke ngoku ke niyile na komkhulu...bathe abafana ababini aba'[727] bethunywe...kuso eso sixeko...hayi siyile komkhulu...hee nifike kukho bani na...komkhulu apho ke sifike kukho inkosi...inkosi yayingubani na ngelo xesha yayinguRili[728] ...ngoko ke e— kuthe ke elo gama laloo nkosi nguRili ngoko itshawe...kuthe kwakubuywa ke ngaba bafana kubuzwa le nto kubo...kwathiwa ke ithini na ke inkos'...bathe abafana hayi inkosi ithi ayiyazi loo nto uba ayisazi isikolo....kuba ayiyazi imfundo uba iyintoni na ukufunda yintoni n'...bathi ke abafana abo bakuba begqibe ukuthetha loo nto...wasukuma ke umphakathi wakomkhulu owayebusene nenkosi leyo...wathi awu hayi imele 'ze loo nto ibe nokuba njalo...nkosi kufuneka ulithobe igazi kuba apha kwaXhosa akuzange...kwafundwa...akuzange...kwabakho sikolo...asiyazi thina loo nto noba isikolo siyintoni na endalweni...ke wena ke nkosi kumele 'ze uyijonge loo nt' oba[729] iyintoni na isikolo nemfundo ezweni lakwaGcaleka lakwaXhosa...apha thina sahlala sahlala nje ekubeni sisithi thina siyazenza izinto ezomeleleyo kanti naxa sisithi thina zomelele sisaza kube siphinde sixelelwe okokuba azomelelanga...uthini na ke wena nkos'...kuthe cwaka ke...kwathi cwaka...kuthe emzuzwini onexesha elide...yanokuphakama inkosi isithi izwe lakowethu ngoku...lijikile...isikolo asisaz'...imfundo asiyaz'...njengoko ke kusithiwa ngoku kufuneka kufundiwe...ngaba ezi zinto...zethu...sizenzayo...zakulunga[730] na...kulo mfundo...uphakamile ke omnye umfo kule nkitha yaloo nkundla...wathi hayi nkos'...liyavakala izwi lakho...kodwa ke ixesha eli lona liqhubela phambilana...ekubeni umntu alazi igama lakhe...'se libhaliwe...kuba mna ndiyiyo indoda yasemaQwathini...'be 'khe[731] ndesuka apha ndaya eRawutini...ndithe ndakufika eRawutini apho...kufuneke okokuba ndizibize ngefani[732] yam...yaye ke loo nto iyifani yam ndingayaz'...kuthiwe xa kuthethwayo kwathiwa le nto iyifani...ngunyokokhulu...ozala ozala[733] uyihlo...ndibe nokuthi ke ndangqika ndangqika ndade ndabuza ke kwabanye uba kanene utata lowo...e— uyise wakhe uzalwa ngubani na...ndixelelwe ke ngumfana wasemaMvulanen'...wandixelela int' ethi utata lo uzalwa yintombi yasemaQocweni...ndithe ke xa ndithetha loo nto kufunwa ezo fani eRawutini int' ebe singayaz'...ndaba nobuchule ke ngonje ndangathi ndiyazenzela...ndaqala ke ndayixela loo nto...ndakuba ndiyixelile ke loo nto...kubonakele okokuba xa ndigodukile ngoku mna yakuphela ijoyini[734] ...inayin' manda[735] ...esasijoyine ngayo eRawutini...ngoku ke mna ndandisebenza kwaMqandatye[736] ...ngoku ke ndithe ndakubuya...ndayichaza loo nto ekhay'...ndithe ndakuyithetha loo nto kutata...wathi utata ndimele 'ze ndiyise komkhulu loo ntetho...ndithe mna kuye utata tata iya kuthini na ukuba iye nam into enjalo komkhulu kuba mna andiyazi imvelaphi yesiXhosa...ngoku ke mna ndingumntana wena umdala phaya ndiza kubuzwa amazwi esidala sesiXhosa...noko ke tata kufaneleke okokuba ndihambe nawe xa ndiya komkhulu...kuthe ke ngoko ke utata...wathi kumama...hee Nosenti uyayiva le nto ithethwayo ngulo mfana...uthe yena uthini na...uthi yena uNosenti endodeni yakhe apho hayi...uth'...akanabuya yedwa komkhulu kuba umzekelo wesiXhosa...akaz' kuwaz'...komkhulu kaloku kuza kufunwa imvelaphi yesiXhosa esidala...uthi ke lo mfana makahambe namNosent'...siye komkhulu sokuthetha[737] into leyo ayibone yena eRawutini xa eb' esebenza kwaMqandatye...uthe ke ukuthetha uNosenti lowo hayi...noko ke...injalo le nto iyithethwayo ngulo mfana...mandithi kaloku...Sozekelwa[738] ...injalo into abantwana bayahamba bakhwele baye emlungwini...ize ke ngonje ke bona...babuye nezinto size thina apha sixakwe...ke nx' atshoyo esithi...ufuna uhambe naye uye naye komkhulu...aye kuncekelela ukuthetha le nto...yezi fani...asizazi thina iifani...kufuneka ke uyile...uyokumchaza[739] kaloku umntana...ukuze umhlomele kumagama awathethayo apho...yaye ke kukhona le nto yesi sikolo...kuthiwa apha kufuneka ubekho isikolo...uze umntu azi igama lakhe umntu 'ze azi into ethethwayo...ke thina asiyazi loo nto...kuba 'zange sihambe esikolo...thin' izinto sizithetha ngokwethu apha ize zingqine igazi lethu...ke ukuba ngoku kukho into enjalo...ilunge ke uba nawe akusayi kuyichasa kub' akwazi xa uyichasile uba iya kuthini na...uvumile ke umfo lowo...wahamba naye unyana wakhe...bengqinelana ngaloo nto ngegama lomfazi wakhe uNosenti...esekela igama lonyana wakhe...bathe ke ngoku xa bethetha loo nto kusithiwa kuza kubakho isikolo int' engazange yabakho kwaXhosa...isikolo imfundo kuthiwa makufundiswe abantu...ubuzile apho akufika wathi oo silapha ngoku...saye thina sixakekile...saye thina sineehambo zethu...saye thina asiyaz' int' esiyibizelwa yona...saye thina sifun' ukwazi nale nt' uba ayiyo ngozi na le nto kuthiwa makubekho isikolo...uphakamile ke ophakamayo ngokwaz' kwakhe oko okwakufumanekile wathi hayi isikolo asiyongozi...uthe umfo lowo eb' ezile ehamba nonyana wakhe nomkakho wathi phakamisa okokuba loo nto iyintoni na...uthe ke ukuphakamisa kwakhe wathi hayi into ekhoyo apha qha sisikolo...ekuthiwa makufundwe...uthe lo ukuphinda wathi kutshiwo ngubani na...lowo uthi makufundwe yaye esithi makufundwe ntoni na...uthe lowo ukuphinda elo gama wathi hayi kutsho urulumente...uthi makufundwe...uthe lo kanjaqo urulumente yintoni na le nt' ingurulumente yintoni uphi 1'[740] urulumente ngubani kakade...uhlala phi...uthe lo hayi hayi urulumente e— siso esinye isikhulu...isikhulu esikwanjengani...ekanti[741] yena unguye umnt' omhlophe...kodwa ke akahlali nani...kodwa ke uyanilungiselela...uthe yena lo oo usilungiselela nganton'...uphi ngoku ngokuba sasikade thina singadiphi[742] ziinkomo singarafi[743] ...kuthiwe uhleli kuthiwe makuziwe nerafu yakho kanti nje eb' ekho yena...uthen' uz' angasincedi kanti siyabulaleka loo rulument'...uthi lowo uthethayo hayi kaloku ngoko yena...eb' engenalwazi okokuba nixakekile kuba nikude naye...anikhange nathetha naye...uthe lo oo ke ngokuya angazanga okokuba thina sixakekile...asithethi naye yena ekude nathi usebenze ntoni na ukuza kuqonda kuthi thina singaziyo okokuba apha sonakalelwe...uthe lowo hayi kaloku loo ndima...nxa iyonke...imele 'ze nifunde apha esikolweni...ukuze nith' nakufunda apha esikolweni...nibe nokwaz' okokuba nikwaz' ukuthetha naye...nibuxele ubungxwelera benu kuye ukuze yena azi ngani okokuba lingxweler kile...xa kungoku ke kwenziwa nje isiqhiphu one[744] okokuba kubekho sikolo umnt' alaz' igama lakhe...uthe lowo e— eli gama...liza kwaziwa okokuba ligama lakhe kungoba ke nxa umntu efunda uza kunikwa ntoni na...uthe lowo hay' akazi kunikwa nto kodwa uza kwanikwa[745] ukhanyiso loba ayazi indawo engamncedayo akwazi nokubhala akwazi nokuthini na axele int' ekuyo...uthe lo hayi...ke uba ngaba kunjalo ke izikolo zingaphi na...elalin'...kuthe nxa kukweso sithuba kwesuka umfo oliphakathi lakomkhulu...wathi hayi...ke ngonje ke le nto ngaba lakutshona[746] ilanga kuba kaloku izikolo aziyi kuqala ngokuba lithoba az' ukuqala ngobalishumi...kwakumiswa isikolo ize ithi nxa iboniweyo loo nto uba ilungile iqale ke ngonje kubekho enye indawo...uphindile wesuka loo mfo wathi hayi mna isiduko sam ndinguMdladla...ke mna ke andiyifuni into ethi nxa ithethwayo...ibe ngungqike...ingabi nacala...elicacileyo okokuba kuthethwa ntoni na...nithetha ukuthi singaba simanyene ngantoni na aph' xa kunokuthi kuthethwa kube kusithiwa akukathethwa...'theth'[747] uba be kuthethwa ntoni na...kuba ezi zinto zithethwayo zeziya zemele 'ze zithethwe okanye uba akuva yitsho komonye wakowenu...akumamelele...kuba thina...siyeva uba kuthiwa makubekho isikolo...sonke apha sihleli nje siyeva kuthiwa makubekho into esisikolo...kuthiwa ke le nto isisikolo...kuthiwa umntu uza kulazi igama lakhe...alibhale...kuthiwa uza kulazi igama lakhe libhaliwe...ke ngoko ke loo nto leyo kuthiwa iyinto eya kuthi isincede...okanye sahlulalene ezwen'...kuba kaloku abanye bafuna abanye babo uze baqonde uba bonakalelwe[748] ngaluphi na uhlobo...'theth'[749] uba ke wena nxa ugunyatha ukuthi akunakusingena isikolo ngaba ke uya kuba kuyiphi na indima...kuba ixesha eli likhoyo kuthiwa likhanyile[750] ...watsho wahlala ke lowo...usukile lo mfo...wathi hayi ndiyayiva loo nto kodwa mna ndikhula 'de[751] ndibe ngaka nje...andizange ndibone sikolo...mna ekhaya amasi...eb' ethululelwa emcepheni...sisele...mna ekhaya 'be[752] kusuka kuthethwe into emele 'ze yenziwe ngekhaya lakowethu...ihlanganiselwe ilali...mna ekhaya kuthe mhla kwaxakana udadewobawo[753] ...kunye notata...kwabizwa abantu ityala lagwetywa enkundleni...kungekho gama libhaliweyo...azi ke njengoba nina nifuna izinto zokubhala nje kungoba iya kulunga na loo nto...hlezana nithi kanti niyazilahla ngale mibhalo...kuba e— apha sihleli nje sihleli ngemitetho yesiXhosa nendalo nemvelaphi yethu...kodwa ke ndiyavuma...ngokuba ndiyabonakala okokuba ndindedwa kule nto ndiyithethayo...kodwa ke nakuloo nto khaniqaphele le ndawo isiko lesiXhosa le lemvelaphi[754] elidala lifuna kwa isidala...akukho mntu mtsha ungaze athi esikweni lesiXhosa lemvela akhuphe umthetho odibene nesikolo kanti kungaphila umntu apho...khangela ke nangoku...udadewethu omncinci...ulilo igqirakazi...yena ke akhange adibane nesikolo...kodwa ke ngoku angandibananga nesikolo...ube nguye umntu osixelela izinto kwelaa khaya lakowethu...utheni phaya kwelaa khaya lakowethu uthe nxa kuqhiphukelene utata kunye notat' omncinci...wabaxelela...wathi tat' omncinci uz' ukhe uze apha ekhaya uze ukh' uqonde eyona nto uxabana ngayo nomkhuluwa wakho...kanti ke tat' omncinci kukho le nto kuwe akuyazanga okokuba umkhuluwa lo wakho amasiko wakowenu yena uyawazi ngaphezulu kwakh'...wena ke tat' omncinci namhlanikwezeni...mna ndagula 'zange ubekho ekwenziweni kwam...ngoko ndandisenziwa ndigula...kanti ke apha ekhaya kufuneka kukhiwe ubulawu...ubulawu ke bukhiwa endle...uze ke ngonje ke bakuba bukhiwa endle budityaniswe naye ke umntu kuxhelwe ke ibhokhwe emhlophe...wena ke tata omncinci uhambela kude ke notata loo nto indikhohlile...ndakugqib' okokuba ke mna ndiyintombi yenu endimele 'ze ndidityaniswe nini nithethe izwi lokundiphilisa...kodwa anindiphilisi kuba nina anivani ngomtheth'...usukile ke uyise wayo intombi leyo...wadibana ke ngenene nomninawa wakhe...uthe akudibana nomninawa wakhe wathi lo mntana usixakile kucac' uba nguyena uza kuba mkhulu ngaphezulu kwethu kuba wazi iingqondo zesiXhosa...kwakunye nemvelaphi ukusuka ezantsi kudalo...ngoku ke mayithini loo nto mayisetyenzelwe int' okokuba le ntombazana...mayikh' ibizwe kubizwe nabantu ize le ntombazana iyithethe le nto ib' iyithethile iyithethe kukho abantu...ize sibe nokungqinelwa okanye singangqinelwa...kuba asazi noba kothatyathwa umcimbi wokuthetha kwayo na noba kothatyathwa umcimbi wokulandula kwethu na...kuhambile ke kwaye kuyicawe ezayo e— xa kuthethwayo ngoko...kuthiwe ebafazini...mabenye[755] inkoduso inyiwe inkoduso emanzin' umbona agalelw' emanzini adumbe...ngoku ke umbona ugalelw' emanzini wadumba...uthe wakugalelw' emanzini kusuku lesine wonyulwa umbona ngumfazi...wath' akumonyula umfazi umbona wamvundis'...wathi akumvundisa zathi iintsuku ezi zasibhozo...kwalile kusuku lethoba yakhutshwa inkoduso 'se ilungile...ithe yakuba ilungile inkoduso yanekwa...yanekwa inyanga yonke kufuneka yomile iqalwe endlini iintsuku ezintandathu...isanekwa endlini...ithe kusuku lesixhenxe yakhutshwa phandle yaxhonywa phezu kothango ngeengxowa...ithe yakuxhonywa phezu kothango inkoduso leyo yabonakal' uba yomile...ngoku ke uthabathile umfo lowo womzi...hayi Nobani...noko laa nto yayithethwa yintombazana kumele 'ze ithi niyijonge inkodus' uba ithini na...usukile umfazi wayarwatshazelisa engxoweni inkoduso...wayiva wade wathatha ukozo...walufaka emlonyeni waluva nangamazinyo uba lomile na...uthe akuluva ngamazinyo waluva uba lomil'...uluqhekezile ke wathi hayi yise kaBani lomile ukhozo...ithe indoda ukuphendula oo utsho ke...uthetha uba ke ingenzeka na ke e— laa nkathazo...yokokuba sithetha laa nto ib' ithethwa yile ntombazana...uthe umfazi hayi yise kaBani noko kulungile ngoku kuba kucaca okokuba ingalunga le nkoduso nangaphezulu nangaphantsi...yaye ke elo xesha elo kwakusilwa iindywala[756] ...kuze abafazi namadoda...azokusela utywal' emzini kamntu eve into ethethwa kulo mzi...kungekho mlungu kungekho ntoni...isisiXhosa sodwa...ee kutheni ke ngoku kwakuhamba eso sithuba...ye— kuthiwe mfazi...bhula umdlungu uba unawo...ukuze kwenziwe le nto imele 'ze yenziwe uze le ntombazana iyithethe le nto yayo...ubhulile ke umfazi umdlungu lowo...wawubhula wawugqiba...uthe akubhula waqokelela abanye abafazi...esithi makusilwe uze kude kuzokuthethwa le nto iza kuthethwa ekhay' aph'...kuthe kwakuba kuqokelelene njalo ngabafazi...babuzile abanye abafazi kuye hee...hee wethu sis' omkhulu...sis' omkhulu...wathi hnn...hee s'[757] omkhulu hnn...utheth' uba amadoda akaz' kuxakwa yile nto sokuyenza[758] apha uwaxelel'...wathi yena ewe ndiwaxelele kuba indoda yasekh' apha iyayazi loo nto okokuba yona ayiyixelanga emadodeni yiyo efelishileyo[759] mna ndiyixelile ebafazini...oo hayi ke s' omkhulu masisile ke...kuba ke namhlanje siyadidiyela kwaye ke xa kudidiyelwayo kuthiwani...kugalelwa umgrayo wombona ograywe elityeni ugalel' ezifatyin'...uthi wakugalelwa ezifatyin' umgrayo...kugraywe inkoduso...kulinganiselwe ngezitya zombon'...igalelwe loo nto kwaseefatyin'...iphinde loo nto yakugqiba njalo kuphekwe iimbiza zamanzi zibile zithi ezi mbiza zakubila zamanz'...zigalelwe phaya efatyini kuzanyiswe umfaz' agqume...yenzekile ke loo nto ngolo hlobo wagquma umfaz'...ngoku ke kuthe nxa kunjalo uthe umfazi usokhay'[760] ...hayi bo ibhadlile le ntlama...mabahambe abafazana bokh'[761] amanzi okupholis'...kusukiwe ngabafaz'...besuka besiya emanzini aph' bawakhile amanz' nge-emel' bafika bawagalela ke zaphola ke ezo 'nto 'be zipholiswa...kusiliwe ke ngabafazana nxa bebonke...bekrweca loo ntlama ematyeni xa bebonke loo nto behombile loo nto bezicocile loo nto besoyika loo nto behlonipha loo nto bezithanda loo nto belungisa...kuthe ke kwakusilwa ke kwakugqitywa ke kwagalelwa ke intlama apho ezifatyini...yagalelwa ke intlama ezifatyini kuthe ke ngonje kwathiwa ke ngumfazi lowo wekhaya...hayi noko ngonje ipholile yizani namanzi abandayo ipholiswe...basukile abafazana basixhenxe bephethe ii-emel' bakukha[762] amanzi...agalelwa[763] ke loo manzi a— abandayo ezifatyini zaphola...kusile ke kusasa kwasa kusithiwa khawukhangele...khawukhangel' uba gwele liyabila na libilile igwele...oo uthe okhangeleyo wathi hayi liyabil'...zaqokelelwa iimbiza zaye nangoko ziqokelelwa ngabafazana belali ababiziweyo nabasekh' apha abazokusil'...kwasilwa njalo kugqitywa...kuthe ke njal' uba libila ke igwel' hayi makuphekwe...besukile abafaz' bachol' amalongwe...bathatha indiza emasimini...kwaphekwa utywala obo bavuthwa...bophulwa...now[764] kuza kuthiwani ngoku...ngoba ngoku akukho zitya zokuchakela....oo sithini...oo sithini ke ngoku...ngoba ke noko...'be simele 'ze sithi ke mhlayimbi singasebenza...watsho umfazi omkhulu wekhaya...oo bebize abafaz' bazokwenza into emzini wakh'...wathi hayi...hambani nokukha ubulongwe...nanziya iinkomo zilele phaya...yikhani ubulongwe...nizokusinda icala lendlu...ukuze ngoku nophule iimbiza...nizigalele aph'...loo nto igama layo zigalelwa iimbiza ezo emrawuleni izidudu zotywala...ke ngoku bahambile abafazi baya kukha obu bulongwe baze ke ngoku...bafika basinda benza lo mrawulo...bazophulele apho ke ezo mbiza nxa zizonke...oo...ngonje ke zakuba zokophulelwe apho iimbiza ezo zonk'...zaphola ke...kwenziwa ke igwele into ekuthiwa ngumlumiso[765] igama layo...into ethi yenziwe ibe sisinqe efatyini...kwenziwe umlumiso kufakwe inkoduso igutywe igalelwe apho kuthathwe imbizo ibenye ezidudwini igalelwe apho kusithiwa kwenzelwa into yokokuba obu tywala z'e bubile ngomso...ithe ke yakwenziwa loo nto kwasa ke kusasa...kusuku lesibini[766] ...beza abafazi abe[767] bepheka utywala...oo hayi ke sizofaka[768] batsho ke usokhaya umninikhaya[769] umfazi wekhaya wabanika inkoduso yokuguba...uba mabagube ukuba bafakele utywala...bagubile ke...abo bafazana...kwahluzwa...kuhluzwa obu tywala busesinqeni apha efatyini yaye utywala obu ba'[770] buhluzwa ngezo mini buhluzwa ngentluzo eyenziwe ngemizi imizi int' ekhiwa emlanjeni...ithi yakukhiwa emlanjeni loo nto yomiswe ichazw' iphothwe kwenziwe imizi yokuhluza utywala besiXhosa kwaGcaleka kudalo...ngoku ke bayenzile loo nto abafazana...bahluza ke le nto bayibeka entla kweziko enye ibhekile bathi ingumbuyo[771] igama layo...kuba sigqiba ukuhluza...bathi ke ngoku simhluzile uponti[772] uzele bexela imbiza ezelayo bobu tywala buhluziweyo...bahlalile ke baza[773] kwahluzwa ke ngonje ke...bonke obunye...kuthe ke emveni kokuba kuhluziwe...kwathiwa shiya shiya shiya shiya into yokokuba 'ze kuthi xa kufakwayo 'ze kubile obaa tywala...e— uthe umninikhaya sukumani bafazana nina nikhe esaa sidudu sisemrawuleni nisigalele ezifatyini kuba le ntetho ib' itheth' apha izolo iza kutheth'...basukumile abafazana bakha isidudu basigalela ezifatyini zazala iifatyi...bazifaka ke zabila iifatyi...kwalile ke xa zibilayo wathetha umnt' ob' ethetha ngegama lakhe kowabo kwakhe...uthe umthetho lowo xa uthethwa ngolo hlobo kwathiwa hayi ntombazana noko uvakel'...okokuba singemisa utywala obe sibenzela eny' into ngegama lakho noko loo nto iz' ingakuhluphi kuba asiyazi nathi kuba umnt' omhlophe akakufuni ukuchukunyiswa kowabo kwakhe...xola ntombazana kuba ngoku ekh' aph'...sisile isabhokhwe...isabhokhwe yintoni...isabhokhwe butywala obusilwa xa iinkabi zivela kuvuna phela ngantsomi.


Notes

[725] Ithi intsomi: but this is not really an imaginative narrative; it is historical.

[726] 'fuzo: ifuzo.

[727] aba': ababe.

[728] Rili: an affectionate name for Sagrili, a great Xhosa king.

[729] oba: yokokuba.

[730] zakulunga: ziya kulunga.

[731] 'khe: ndikhe.

[732] ngefani: ifani, from Afrikaans van, “surname.” A Xhosa equivalent to a surname is isiduko, an ancestral name which is revered through alteration (hlonipha, a form of respect which results in the alteration of words).

[733] ozala ozala: repeated for emphasis.

[734] ijoyini: -joyina is the verb. from English “join,” meaning “contract for labor” in Xhosa.

[735] inayin' manda: from English “nine months.” This phrase is also connected with contracting to work in the mines in Johannesburg, in the sugar plantations in Natal, etc. The phrase, like the word joyina, is derived from English because of the nature of the labor, contracting labor, etc.

[736] kwaMqandatye: at Mqandatye's place. Mqandatye is the white employer, and is a name given to him by Africans. The name may mean, “I eat gruel,” or “Stop from eating” (i.e., “The wages are not enough”).

[737] sokuthetha: siye kuthetha.

[738] Sozekelwa: Father of Zekelwa.

[739] uyokumchaza: uye kuchaza.

[740] l': lo.

[741] ekanti: she says ekanye.

[742] singadiphi: from English “dip” (the “dipping” of animals as a preventative of disease).

[743] singarafi: the Xhosa verb -rafa and noun irafu are derived from Afrikaans opgaaf, a poll tax which is paid by Africans.

[744] one: in English.

[745] kwanikwa: kunikwa.

[746] lakutshona: laya kutshona.

[747] 'theth': nithetha.

[748] bonakalelwe: utterly slowly, deliberately.

[749] 'theth': uthetha.

[750] likhanyile: gruffly. Masithathu Zenani is very expressive throughout this performance.

[751] 'de: ndide.

[752] 'be: kube.

[753] udadewobawo: udadebobawo.

[754] le lemvelaphi: li [copulative] plus e [relative particle], la [possessive] plus imvelaphi [noun].

[755] mabenye: also mabanye.

[756] iindywala: plural of utywala.

[757] s': sisi.

[758] sokuyenza: size kuyenza.

[759] efelishileyo: from English “fail.”

[760] usokhay': uyise wekhaya, the man [host] of the house. The woman, as host, is given the title.

[761] bokh': baye kukha.

[762] bakukha: baya kukha.

[763] agalelwa: yagalelwa.

[764] now: it is the English word “now.” Note that it is shortly followed by the Xhosa word ngoku, “now.”

[765] umlumiso: also isilumiso.

[766] usuku lesibini: usuku lwesibini. The w is frequently omitted in the olu class.

[767] abe: ababe.

[768] sizofaka: size kufaka.

[769] usokhaya [uyise wekhaya] umninikhaya: both are male appellations, yet they refer to the woman head of the house. It is because she is playing this role at this time.

[770] ba': babe.

[771] ingumbuyo: “the homecoming,” the name of the billy-can (cf. intluzelo, very fresh beer).

[772] uponti: the British pound, the cost of a large cooking pot.

[773] baza: kwaza is probably more accurate.

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