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Ringler, Dick / Beowulf: A New Translation for Oral Delivery (May 2005)

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VERSE TYPES APPEARING IN THE PRESENT TRANSLATION

The designations of the verse types are modelled on those of A. J. Bliss's analysis (The Metre of Beowulf, Appendix C, Table II) and so are the permitted distributions. (Note that all types with secondary stress have been eliminated.) In the three columns on the right, the symbol # shows that a verse of the type in question is permitted in the position indicated. In places where the # is replaced by a figure, the figure serves the same purpose and also indicates the permitted number of anacruses. (The number has been determined by adding one extra anacrusis to those allowed in forestressed verses of this type according to Bliss's analysis [Appendix C, Table III].)

Heavy (i.e., "hypermetric") verses occur in the translation at the same points that they do in the original (see Bliss, Index, p. 162). On the structural models for such verses, see Bliss, Appendix D, Table II (but note that these models are drawn from the whole corpus of Old English verse, not just from Beowulf).

Odd-numbered verses with double alliteration Odd-numbered verses with single alliteration Even-numbered numbered verses
a1b x x / x as your leader (497) #
a1c x x x / x with reinforcements (5890) #
a1d x x x x / x and we are unlikely (5843) #
a1e x x x x x / x and could not be dissuaded (1019) #
d1a x / x x like icicles (3215) # #
d1b x x / x x than the warriors (87) # #
d1c x x x / x x if you are curious (687) # #
d1d x x x x / x x and it was a miracle (1541) # #
e1b x x / on the bench (2381) #
e1c x x x / they had been told (2693) #
e1d x x x x / though before tonight (1435) #
e1e x x x x x / but it was reinforced (1545) #
1A1a(i) / | x / x moors | and marshes (207) 2 1 2
1A1a(ii) / | x / x x stripped | of ornaments (5522) 1 1
1A1b(i) / | x x / x doomed | and despairing (1700) 3 1 1
1A1b(ii) / | x x / x x grim | and inglorious (1275) 1
1A1c / | x x x / x now | and in the future (2444) 1 1
1A*1a(i) / x | x / x glory | in battle (127) 2 1 1
1A*1a(ii) / x x | x / x Herebeald | and Hæthcyn (4867) 1
1A*1b / x | x x / x diving | through the water (3238) 2 1
1A*1c / x | x x x / x [seem] senseless. | It was precisely (4923) 1 1
1A*2a(ii) / x | x / x x illness | or accident (3525) 1
1D1 / | / x x high | destiny (6170) 2 1 1
1D*1(i) / x | / x x swooping | suddenly (3001) 1
1D*1(ii) / x x | / x x woe-stricken | warriors (6355) 1
2A1a(i) / x | / x famous | children (118) 1 1 1
2A1a(ii) / x | / x x Hrothgar's | sentinel (458) 1 1
2A1a(iii) / x x | / x glorious | treasures (4206) 1 1
2B1- / | x / wet | with blood (2571) #
2B1a x / | x / the sun | and moon (188) # #
2B1b x x / | x / will support | their prince (47) # # #
2B1c x x x / | x / and on campaigns | abroad (2496) # #
2B1d x x x x / | x / before he embraced | the pyre (5636) #
2B2- / | x x / bright | from the forge (610) #
2B2a x / | x x / his name | was renowned (15) # # #
2B2b x x / | x x / to the edge | of the sea (57) # # #
2B2c x x x / | x x / I must go back | to the coast (636) #
2B2d x x x x / | x x / though he was a lad | when I once (744) #
2C1- / | / x twelve | winters (296) # #
2C1a x / | / x a dread | demon (171) # # #
2C1b x x / | / x of the wide | ocean (90) # # #
2C1c x x x / | / x so it is less | likely (675) # # #
2E1a / x | x / mailcoats | and swords (77) # # #
2E1b / x | x x / soaring | to the clouds (153) 1 1
3B1a x / x | / the surging | sea (19) # # #
3B1b x x / x | / from his father's | hoard (41) # # #
3B1c x x x / x | / beneath the solemn | bluffs (421) # # #
3B1d x x x x / x | / it was in a frenzy | now (4607) # # #
3B1e x x x x x / x | / although it is a dragon's | style (4550) #
3B2b x x / x x | / inexperienced | men (4036) #
3B2c x x x / x x | / in that unnatural | hall (3140) #
3B*1a x / x | x / a creature | of hell (202) # # #
3B*1b x x / x | x / you have brought it | to pass (1907) # # #
3B*1c x x x / x | x / from the beginning | of time (1403) # # #
3B*1d x x x x / x | x / and who was already | at work (1742) # #
3B*1e x x x x x / x | x / because they had assaulted | the Geats (846) #
3E1 / x x | / fabulous | wealth (73) 1 1 1
3E*1 / x x | x / Beowulf | the Geat (2382) 1 1 1
3F1- / | / matched | bays (4327) # # #
3F1a x / | / the sweet | mead (991) # # #
3F1b x x / | / as the years | passed (292) # # #
3F1c x x x / | / if it is fate's | will (559) # # #
3F1d x x x x / | / they should have the same | rights (2175) #

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