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The James Joyce Scholars' Collection

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Budgen, Frank / James Joyce and the making of 'Ulysses', and other writings
(1972)

Chapter four,   pp. 60-73 PDF (879.0 KB)


Page 68

 JAMES JOYCE 
Power, Ben Dollard and others. They seem to be portrait studies conveying
all the illusion of character and experience. Others, as, for example, Professor
MacHugh, Haines the Englishman, young Dignam, Tom Rochford, are drawn on
the flat with a few suggestive lines. Yet others, and these are of the most
enjoyable, are vital, grotesque types‚ÄĒcaricatures as a Rowlandson might
have conceived them. The Nameless One and the Citizen in the Cyclops episode
are examples. Blazes Boylan, Marion Bloom's impresario and lover, can hardly
be classed in any of these categories, hut in the main he is a caricature
of the overbearing blond beast, who gets the better of his neighbour in bed
and business, who thinks himself a hero, but who in reality is a comic automaton.
 Most of the people belong to the poorer class of Dublin citizen. Hardly
any of them are what might be called working people; that is to say,, there
are no plumbers, carpenters or railway guards in regular employment among
them. Nearly all are of the lower middle class, in dire poverty if they have
lost their jobs or property, but a shade above the well-paid workingman if
things are going well with them. The comfortably-connected Buck Mulligan
is an exception. Apart from Mulligan all the students are of the hard up
or stoney-broke variety. Bloom canvasses for advertisements; Tom Kernan is
a traveller in tea; Martin Cunningham has a good job in Dublin castle; Simon
Dedalus, without property or position, can only with difficulty give his
daughters a shilling for food; Cowley is dodging the bailiffs, and Dollard
lives in a home for gentlemen who have seen better days. The rich bourgeois
and governing patrician, as also, the pure and simple wage worker play no
great part in the book. About ninety per cent of the people in George Moore's
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