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Icelandic Online Dictionary and Readings

Sverrir Hólmarsson; Sanders, Christopher; Tucker, John / Ķslensk-ensk oršabók (1989)

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Conjugation of Verbs

Weak verbs

(preterite formed with -aši, -ši, -di, -ti)

Class 1: 1st pers pres sg indic ending in -a; infinitive ending in -a, -ja, -va; any type of stem vowel; preterite formed with -aši, pp with -aš.

kalla
pres indic pres subj pret indic and subj
sg 1st kalla kalli kallaši
2nd kallar kallir kallašir
3rd kallar kalli kallaši
pl 1st köllum köllum köllušum
2nd kalliš kalliš köllušuš
3rd kalla kalli köllušu
imperative participles
sg 2nd kallašu prp kallandi
pl 2nd kalliš pp kallaš

Class 2: 1st pers pres sg indic ending in -i (no ending when infinitive ends in : nį > nę). Infinitive endings in -a (or -ja after g and k) or . Preterite formed in the sg with -ši, -di, -ti, pp with -t or -aš.

gera, leigja, vaka
pres indic pres subj pret indic and subj
sg 1st geri geri gerši
2nd gerir gerir geršir
3rd gerir geri gerši
pl 1st gerum gerum geršum
2nd geriš geriš geršuš
3rd gera geri geršu   [p. 45]  
imperative participles
sg 1st geršu prp gerandi
pl 2nd geriš pp gert
pres indic pres subj pret indic and subj
sg 1st leigi leigi leigši
2nd leigir leigir leigšir
3rd leigir leigi leigši
pl 1st leigjum leigjum leigšum
2nd leigiš leigiš leigšuš
3rd leigja leigi leigšu
imperative participles
sg 1st leigšu prp leigjandi
pl 2nd leigiš pp leigt
pres indic pres subj pret indic pret subj
sg 1st vaki vaki vakti vekti
2nd vakir vakir vaktir vektir
3rd vakir vaki vakti vekti
pl 1st vökum vökum vöktum vektum
2nd vakiš vakiš vöktuš vektuš
3rd vaka vaki vöktu vektu
imperative participles
sg 2nd vaktu prp vakandi
pl 2nd vakiš pp vakaš
The pres indic of hafa forms a special case:
sg 1st hef
2nd hefur
3rd hefur
pl 1st höfum
2nd hafiš
3rd hafa

Also belonging to this class are verbs with vowel change in the infinitive and pres indic: segja (sagši, sagt) ég segi, viš segjum; and žegja (žagši, žagaš) ég žegi, viš žegjum. Some verbs of this type have vowel change only in the pres sg indic and not in the infinitive: hafa (hafši, haft) ég hef, and žvo (žvoši, žvegiš) ég žvę, viš žvoum. A few verbs with final consonants in the stem take -t to form the pp: haft, horft, keypt (kaupa), sagt.

Class 3: There is no ending in 1st pers pres sg indic and the infinitive ends in -ja; vowel change in the infinitive and in the entire present tense.

telja, spyrja
pres indic pres subj pret indic pret subj
sg 1st tel telji taldi teldi
2nd telur teljir taldir teldir
3rd telur telji taldi teldi   [p. 46]  
pl 1st teljum teljum töldum teldum
2nd teljiš teljiš tölduš telduš
3rd telja telji töldu teldu
sg 1st spyr spyrji spurši spyrši
2nd spyrš spyrjir spuršir spyršir
3rd spyr spyrji spurši spyrši
pl 1st spyrjum spyrjum spuršum spyršum
2nd spyrjiš spyrjiš spuršuš spyršuš
3rd spyrja spyrji spuršu spyršu
imperative participles
pl 2nd teldu prp teljandi
spyršu/spuršu spyrjandi
pl 3rd teljiš pp tališ
spyrjiš spurt

Preterite subjunctive of weak verbs

The preterite subjunctive of weak verbs is formed as follows: For verbs of Class 1 and 2 the preterite subjunctive has the same vowel as the preterite indicative. The main exceptions are the following:

duga dygši
flį flęši
hafa hefši
nęši
segja segši
sękja sękti
tolla tylldi
trśa tryši
ugga yggši
una yndi
vaka vekti
yrkja orti
žegja žegši
žola žyldi
žora žyrši
žvo žvęgi/žvęši
žykja žętti

Verbs of Class 3 form their preterite subjunctive with the vowel of the pres sg, (tel), teldi.

Strong verbs

The classes of strong verbs are differentiated by changes in the vowel. Verb endings are the same as in Class 3 of weak verbs with the exception of the 2nd and 3rd pers sg pres indic, where the endings depend on the final letter in the stem; pp ends in -iš.

bķta
pres indic pres subj pret indic pret subj
sg 1st bķt bķti beit biti
2nd bķtur bķtir beist bitir
3rd bķtur bķti beit biti   [p. 47]  
pl 1st bķtum bķtum bitum bitum
2nd bķtiš bķtiš bituš bituš
3rd bķta bķti bitu bitu
imperative particip
sg 2nd bķttu prp bķtandi
pl 2nd bķtiš pp bitiš

All strong verbs whose stems end in consonants (other than -n, -r, -s, -x) have the same endings as bķta. Verbs with stems ending in -r, -s, -n and -x or that end in a vowel do not follow this rule and are conjugated as follows:

bera kjósa skķna vaxa
sg 1st ber kżs skķn vex
2nd berš kżst skķn vex fęrš
3rd ber kżs skķn vex fęr

Seven classes of vowel change

In the following table the 1st pers pres indic is given only where the stem vowel differs from that in the infinitive (i.e. where change occurs).

infinitive pres sg pret sg pret pl pp
1 class bķta - beit bitu bitiš
2 class bjóša bżšur bauš bušu bošiš
ljśga lżgur laug lugu logiš
sśpa sżpur saup supu sopiš
3 class bresta - brast brustu brostiš
finna - fann fundu fundiš
gjalda geldur galt guldu goldiš
4 class skera - skar skįru skoriš
nema - nam nįmu numiš
5 class drepa - drap drįpu drepiš
sitja - sat sįtu setiš
6 class ala elur ól ólu ališ
7 class falla fellur féll féllu falliš
lįta lętur lét létu lįtiš
auka eykur jók juku aukiš
leika - lék léku leikiš

The vowel changes are given alongside the relevant headword in the dictionary.

Preterite subjunctive of strong verbs

The preterite subjunctive of strong verbs is formed on the basis of the 1st pers plur pret indic with vowel changes (no vowel change for the first gradation).

1: vowel unchanged: biti.
2:   on the basis of u: byši, lygi, sypi.
3: brysti, fyndi.
4: -                    į: skęri, nęmi.
5: - drępi, sęti.
6: -                    ó: ęli.
7: -                    u: yki, jyki or with vowel unchanged: félli, léti, léki.
  [p. 48]  

Verbs with irregular present tense

These verbs are declined irregularly only in the present tense. Pret indic and subjunctive forms have the same endings as weak verbs, and so only the 1st pers sg indic (or subjunctive where there is no indicative) of the preterite is given. Only vera is irregular in the preterite as well as in the subjunctive of the present tense.

pres
eiga 1st sg į 1st pl eigum
2nd įtt 2nd eigiš
3rd į 3rd eiga
mega 1st sg 1st pl megum
2nd mįtt 2nd megiš
3rd 3rd mega
kunna 1st sg kann 1st pl kunnum
2nd kannt 2nd kunniš
3nd kann 3rd kunna
unna when it means to love it is declined as kunna, when it means to allow the pp becomes unnt.
žurfa 1st sg žarf 1st pl žurfum
2nd žarft 2nd žurfiš
3rd žarf 3rd žurfa
muna 1st sg man 1st pl munum
2nd manst 2nd muniš
3rd man 3rd muna
munu 1st sg mun 1st pl munum
2nd munt 2nd munuš
3rd mun 3rd munu subj myndi
skulu 1st sg skal 1st pl skulum
2nd skalt 2nd skuluš
3rd skal 3rd skulu subj skyldi
vilja 1st sg vil 1st pl viljum
2nd vilt 2nd viljiš
3rd vill 3rd vilja
vita 1st sg veit 1st pl vitum
2nd veist 2nd vitiš
3rd veit 3rd vita
valda 1st sg veld 1st pl völdum
2nd veldur 2nd valdiš
3rd veldur 3rd valda   [p. 49]  
vera 1st sg er 1st pl erum
2nd ert 2nd eruš
3rd er 3rd eru
pret indic
1st sg var 1st pl vorum
2nd varst 2nd voruš
3rd var 3rd voru
pres subj
1st sg 1st pl séum
2nd sért 2nd séuš
3rd 3rd séu
pret subj
1st sg vęri 1st pl vęrum
2nd vęrir 2nd vęruš
3rd vęri 3rd vęru

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