University of Wisconsin Digital Collections
Link to University of Wisconsin Digital Collections
Link to University of Wisconsin Digital Collections
Icelandic Online Dictionary and Readings

Sverrir Hólmarsson; Sanders, Christopher; Tucker, John / Íslensk-ensk orđabók (1989)

View all of Grammar

 

Declension and Comparison of Adjectives

Strong declension

sg pl
m f n m f n
nom ríkur rík ríkt ríkir ríkar rík
acc ríkan ríka ríkt ríka ríkar rík
dat ríkum ríkri ríku ríkum ríkum ríkum
gen ríks ríkrar ríks ríkra ríkra ríkra
nom langur löng langt langir langar löng
acc langan langa langt langa langar löng
dat löngum langri löngu löngum löngum löngum
gen langs langrar langs langra langra langra
nom hár hátt háir háar
acc háan háa hátt háa háar
dat háum hárri háu háum háum háum
gen hás hárrar hás hárra hárra hárra
nom fagur fögur fagurt fagrir fagrar fögur
acc fagran fagra fagurt fagra fagrar fögur
dat fögrum fagurri fögru fögrum fögrum fögrum
gen fagurs fagurrar fagurs fagurra fagurra fagurra

Most adjectives are declined like ríkur and langur. Adjective stems lose the final -d or of a consonant cluster in the n sg, nom + acc (e.g. blindur $$am blint, harđur $$am hart).

If the stem ends with a vowel + đ, the is assimilated with the -t (e.g. glađur $$am glatt), while a vowel + dd is assimilated as -tt (e.g. saddur $$am satt).

Adjectives containing the tense vowels /-jó/ are declined as hár, while those ending in -ur are declined like fagur (e.g. bitur, dapur, digur, lipur, magur, snotur, vitur).

sg pl
m f n m f n
nom heill heil heilt heilir heilar heil
acc heilan heila heilt heila heilar heil
dat heilum heilli heilu heilum heilum heilum
gen heils heillar heils heilla heilla heilla
nom beinn bein beint beinir beinar bein
acc beinan beina beint beina beinar bein
dat beinum beinni beinu beinum beinum beinum
gen beins beinnar beins beinna beinna beinna
  [p. 39]  

Adjectives ending in -ll and -nn (apart from gamall, einsamall, lítill, mikill, and adjectives (esp.past participles) ending in -inn) are declined like heill and beinn.

sg pl
m f n m f n
nom gamall gömul gamalt gamlir gamlar gömul
acc gamlan gamla gamalt gamla gamlar gömul
dat gömlum gamalli gömlu gömlum gömlum gömlum
gen gamals gamallar gamals gamalla gamalla gamalla
nom lítill lítil lítiđ litlir litlar lítil
acc lítinn litla lítiđ litla litlar lítil
dat litlum lítilli litlu litlum litlum litlum
gen lítils lítillar lítils lítilla lítilla lítilla

einsamall is declined like gamall. mikill is declined like lítill, but without changes in the vowel.

nom nýr nýtt nýir nýjar
acc nýjan nýja nýtt nýja nýjar
dat nýjum nýrri nýju nýjum nýjum nýjum
gen nýs nýrrar nýs nýrra nýrra nýrra

All adjectives with nom m sg ending in -ýr and -sćr are declined like nýr, as is miđur (f miđ, n mitt) except that the nom m pl has the form miđjir.

sg pl
m f n m f n
nom boginn bogin bogiđ bognir bognar bogin
acc boginn bogna bogiđ bogna bognar bogin
dat bognum boginni bognu bognum bognum bognum
gen bogins boginnar bogins boginna boginna boginna
nom barinn barin bariđ barđir barđar barin
acc barinn barđa bariđ barđa barđar barin
dat börđum barinni börđu börđum börđum börđum
gen barins barinnar barins barinna barinna barinna
nom talinn talin taliđ taldir taldar talin
acc talinn talda taliđ talda taldar talin
dat töldum talinni töldu töldum töldum töldum
gen talins talinnar talins talinna talinna talinna
nom ţakinn ţakin ţakiđ ţaktir ţaktar ţakin
acc ţakinn ţakta ţakiđ ţakta ţaktar ţakin
dat ţöktum ţakinni ţöktu ţöktum ţöktum ţöktum
gen ţakins ţakinnar ţakins ţakinna ţakinna ţakinna

Adjectives ending in -inn and the past participles of the strong verbs are declined like boginn, while the past participles of weak verbs with the ending -inn are declined like barinn (those that have -đ- in the preterite), like talinn (those that have -d- in the preterite), and like ţakinn (those that have -t- in the preterite).

Weak declension

The weak form of the nom m sg is obtained by dropping the -r of the strong form of the nom m pl, e.g. langir > langi.

  [p. 40]  
sg pl
m f n
nom langi langa langa löngu
acc langa löngu langa löngu
dat langa löngu langa löngu
gen langa löngu langa löngu

Comparatives are always inflected as weak adjectives (e.g. langur: all cases in m sg and f sg lengri, n sg lengra, pl (m, f, n) in all cases lengri.

Comparison

comp -ari, superl -astur.

pos comp superl
glađur glađari glađastur
ríkur ríkari ríkastur
heiđinn heiđnari heiđnastur
kraminn kramdari kramdastur
dapur daprari daprastur

The vast majority of adjectives form their comparatives and superlatives in this way.

comp -ri, superl -astur.

pos comp superl
skemmtilegur skemmtilegri skemmtilegastur
sljór sljórri sljóastur
nýr nýrri nýjastur
heill heilli heilastur
hreinn hreinni hreinastur

The comparative -r is assimilated and disappears in adjectives whose nom m sg ends in -ll or -nn such as heill. Adjectives ending in -legur/-ugur, -ull, and -á-, -é-, -í-, -ú-, -ý-, -ć-, -ei-, followed by -ll/-nn form their comparatives and superlatives as above.

comp -ri, superl -stur

pos comp superl
langur lengri lengstur
hár hćrri hćstur
stór stćrri stćrstur
ungur yngri yngstur
dökkur dekkri dekkstur

Only a handful of adjectives form their comparatives and superlatives in this way.

A few comparatives and superlatives are derived from a separate stem:

pos comp superl
gamall eldri elstur
góđur betri bestur
lítill minni minnstur
margur fleiri flestur
mikill meiri mestur
illur verri verstur
  [p. 41]  

Go up to Top of Page