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Icelandic Online Dictionary and Readings

Sverrir Hlmarsson; Sanders, Christopher; Tucker, John / slensk-ensk orabk (1989)

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Declension of Nouns

Masculine

Strong declension

1)    gen sg -s, nom pl -ar

sg pl sg pl sg pl
nom hestur hestar hamar hamrar lknir lknar
acc hest hesta hamar hamra lkni lkna
dat hesti hestum hamri hmrum lkni lknum
gen hests hesta hamars hamra lknis lkna
nom bll blar jkull jklar himinn himnar
acc bl bla jkul jkla himin himna
dat bl blum jkli jklum himni himnum
gen bls bla jkuls jkla himins himna

Like jkull: all bisyllabic masculines ending in -ll in nom (gen -ls).

Like lknir: all masculines ending in -ir in nom (pl -ar).



2)    gen sg -s/-jar, nom pl -ir

sg pl sg pl sg pl
nom gestur gestir dalur dalir bekkur bekkir
acc gest gesti dal dali bekk bekki
dat gesti gestum dal dlum bekk bekkjum
gen gests gesta dals dala bekkjar bekkja
  [p. 35]  

3)    gen sg -ar, nom pl -ir

sg pl sg pl sg pl
nom hlutur hlutir vllur vellir fjrur firir
acc hlut hluti vll velli fjr firi
dat hlut hlutum velli vllum firi fjrum
gen hlutar hluta vallar valla fjarar fjara
nom ttur ttir sonur synir sfnuur sfnuir
acc tt tti son syni sfnu sfnui
dat tti ttum syni sonum sfnui sfnuum
gen ttar tta sonar sona safnaar safnaa
nom fagnaur fagnair
acc fagna fagnai
dat fagnai fgnuum
gen fagnaar fagnaa

Nouns ending in -aur have the vowel change like fagnaur (-a- > -u- in the dat pl, while those ending in -uur follow the pattern of sfnuur.



4)    Special cases:

sg pl sg pl sg pl
nom brir brur fair feur maur menn
acc brur brur fur feur mann menn
dat brur brrum fur ferum manni mnnum
gen brur brra fur fera manns manna
nom vetur vetur fingur fingur ftur ftur
acc vetur vetur fingur fingur ft ftur
dat vetri vetrum fingri fingrum fti ftum
gen vetrar vetra fingurs fingra ftar fta

Weak declension

5)    gen sg -a, nom pl -ar

sg pl sg pl sg pl
nom penni pennar banki bankar foringi foringjar
acc penna penna banka banka foringja foringja
dat penna pennum banka bnkum foringja foringjum
gen penna penna banka banka foringja foringja

6)    gen sg -a, nom pl -ur; gen sg -a, nom pl -ir

sg pl sg pl sg pl
nom byrjandi byrjendur bndi bndur Dani Danir
acc byrjanda byrjendur bnda bndur Dana Dani
dat byrjanda byrjendum bnda bndum Dana Dnum
gen byrjanda byrjenda bnda bnda Dana Dana

Like byrjandi; all weak masculines ending in -andi. Dani and bndi are special cases.

  [p. 36]  

Feminine

Strong declension

7)    gen sg and nom pl -ar/-jar/ -var/-r

sg pl sg pl sg pl
nom nl nlar ermi ermar kerling kerlingar
acc nl nlar ermi ermar kerlingu kerlingar
dat nl nlum ermi ermum kerlingu kerlingum
gen nlar nla ermar erma kerlingar kerlinga
nom ey eyjar st stvar r
acc ey eyjar st stvar r
dat ey eyjum st stvum m
gen eyjar eyja stvar stva r a

Feminine nouns ending in -i which take -ar in the gen sg are declined as ermi while those ending in -ing/-ung and proper names are declined like kerling.

8)    gen sg -ar, nom pl -ir

sg pl sg pl sg pl
nom hfn hafnir gjf gjafir verslun verslanir
acc hfn hafnir gjf gjafir verslun verslanir
dat hfn hfnum gjf gjfum verslun verslunum
gen hafnar hafna gjafar gjafa verslunar verslana

All nouns with the suffix -un are declined like verslun.

9)    gen sg -ar, nom pl -ur/-r

sg pl sg pl sg pl
nom bk bkur rnd rendur t tr
acc bk bkur rnd rendur t tr
dat bk bkum rnd rndum t tm
gen bkar bka randar randa tar ta

10)    gen sg -ur/-r/-ar, nom pl -ur/-r/-

sg pl sg pl sg pl sg pl
nom vk vkur mir mur kr kr ms ms
acc vk vkur mur mur k kr ms ms
dat vk vkum mur mrum k km ms msum
gen vkur vka mur mra kr ka msar msa

mir has no vowel change in the sg forms, while in the pl the vowel change is universal. dttir and systir follow the same pattern but the latter has no change in the vowel; like ms is ls.

Weak declension

11)    gen sg -u, nom pl -ur

sg pl sg pl sg pl
nom saga sgur kirkja kirkjur amma mmur
acc sgu sgur kirkju kirkjur mmu mmur
dat sgu sgum kirkju kirkjum mmu mmum
gen sgu sagna kirkju kirkna mmu amma

The presence or absence of -n- in the gen pl is partly independent of the stem.

  [p. 37]  

12)    gen sg -i, nom pl -ar/-ir.

sg pl sg pl
nom lygi lygar vi vir
acc lygi lygar vi vir
dat lygi lygum vi vum
gen lygi lyga vi va

Neuter

Strong declension

13)    gen sg -s, nom pl -

sg pl sg pl sg pl
nom barn brn tr tr kyn kyn
acc barn brn tr tr kyn kyn
dat barni brnum tr trjm kyni kynjum
gen barns barna trs trja kyns kynja
nom hgg hgg hreiur hreiur hundra hundru
acc hgg hgg hreiur hreiur hundra hundru
dat hggi hggum hreiri hreirum hundrai hundruum
gen hggs hgga hreiurs hreira hundras hundraa
nom kvi kvi rki rki
acc kvi kvi rki rki
dat kvi kvum rki rkjum
gen kvis kva rkis rkja

Weak declension

14)    gen sg -a, nom pl -u

sg pl sg pl
nom hjarta hjrtu firma firmu
acc hjarta hjrtu firma firmu
dat hjarta hjrtum firma firmum
gen hjarta hjartna firma firma

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