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Icelandic Online Dictionary and Readings

Sverrir Hlmarsson; Sanders, Christopher; Tucker, John / slensk-ensk orabk (1989)

    [p. 33]  

Grammar

Introductory Comments

Icelandic is, like Russian, Latin, and Ancient Greek, a highly inflected language with extremely variable inflection patterns. As far as possible, every one of these patterns has been included here.

Nouns

The declensions of each noun can be worked out using the information given alongside the relevant headword in the dictionary and the notes that accompany the tables given here in the Grammar.

Adjectives

As in German and Old English, adjectives have both a strong and weak declension: different forms of the adjective are used depending on whether the thing or person referred is definite or indefinite (the red house raua hsi; a red house rautt hs).

Pronouns

For pronouns, feminine and neuter singular forms and all the nominative plurals are given in the body of the dictionary alongside the headform which is the masculine nominative singular. In the case of personal pronouns these inflected forms also feature as independent headwords. In case of uncertainty, desired forms of any pronoun can be looked up in the tables provided here.

Verbs

It has not been possible to mention all the variations here, but the basic patterns are presented in detail. No special attention is given to the reflexive or middle-voice forms, which are characterized by the -st ending (e.g. the reflexive infinitive of bja is bjast).

Further reading

Readers who desire more information are referred to Islndische Grammatik by Bruno Kress (VEB Verlag Enzyklopdie, Leipzig 1982), A Course in Modern Icelandic by Jn Frijnsson (Tmariti Skk, Reykjavk 1978), Icelandic by Stefn Einarsson (The John Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 1949) and slensk beygingafri - Islndische Formenlehre - Icelandic Inflections by Colin D. Thomson (Helmut Buske Verlag, Hamburg 1987).

Vowel changes

The following are the most common vowel changes encountered in the inflections of Icelandic nouns, adjectives, numerals, pronouns and verbs, and a reasonable familiarity with them is essential:

  [p. 34]  
A. In stressed syllables:
a - e fara - fer
telja - taldi
langur - lengri
- ttur - ttir
hr - hrri
f - fr
skru - skri
- brir - brur
bndi - bndur
str - strri
lu - li
u - y ungur - yngri
buu - byi
o - y sonur - synir
yrkja - orti
/j/j - kr - k
djpur - dpri
spa - spur
ljga - lgur
bja - bur
a - hamar - hmrum
saga - sgur
fara - frum
ja - j gjafir - gjf
- e - a vllur - velli - vallar
fair - fur - feur
maur - menn - mnnum
j - i - ja fjrur - firi - fjarar
o - e koma - kemur
sofa - sefur
- e skkva - sekkur
dkkur - dekkri
- j tr - trja
f - fjr
B. In non-stressed syllables:
u - a sfnuur - safnaar
ja - je byrjandi - byrjendur

Declension of Nouns

Masculine

Strong declension

1)    gen sg -s, nom pl -ar

sg pl sg pl sg pl
nom hestur hestar hamar hamrar lknir lknar
acc hest hesta hamar hamra lkni lkna
dat hesti hestum hamri hmrum lkni lknum
gen hests hesta hamars hamra lknis lkna
nom bll blar jkull jklar himinn himnar
acc bl bla jkul jkla himin himna
dat bl blum jkli jklum himni himnum
gen bls bla jkuls jkla himins himna

Like jkull: all bisyllabic masculines ending in -ll in nom (gen -ls).

Like lknir: all masculines ending in -ir in nom (pl -ar).



2)    gen sg -s/-jar, nom pl -ir

sg pl sg pl sg pl
nom gestur gestir dalur dalir bekkur bekkir
acc gest gesti dal dali bekk bekki
dat gesti gestum dal dlum bekk bekkjum
gen gests gesta dals dala bekkjar bekkja
  [p. 35]  

3)    gen sg -ar, nom pl -ir

sg pl sg pl sg pl
nom hlutur hlutir vllur vellir fjrur firir
acc hlut hluti vll velli fjr firi
dat hlut hlutum velli vllum firi fjrum
gen hlutar hluta vallar valla fjarar fjara
nom ttur ttir sonur synir sfnuur sfnuir
acc tt tti son syni sfnu sfnui
dat tti ttum syni sonum sfnui sfnuum
gen ttar tta sonar sona safnaar safnaa
nom fagnaur fagnair
acc fagna fagnai
dat fagnai fgnuum
gen fagnaar fagnaa

Nouns ending in -aur have the vowel change like fagnaur (-a- > -u- in the dat pl, while those ending in -uur follow the pattern of sfnuur.



4)    Special cases:

sg pl sg pl sg pl
nom brir brur fair feur maur menn
acc brur brur fur feur mann menn
dat brur brrum fur ferum manni mnnum
gen brur brra fur fera manns manna
nom vetur vetur fingur fingur ftur ftur
acc vetur vetur fingur fingur ft ftur
dat vetri vetrum fingri fingrum fti ftum
gen vetrar vetra fingurs fingra ftar fta

Weak declension

5)    gen sg -a, nom pl -ar

sg pl sg pl sg pl
nom penni pennar banki bankar foringi foringjar
acc penna penna banka banka foringja foringja
dat penna pennum banka bnkum foringja foringjum
gen penna penna banka banka foringja foringja

6)    gen sg -a, nom pl -ur; gen sg -a, nom pl -ir

sg pl sg pl sg pl
nom byrjandi byrjendur bndi bndur Dani Danir
acc byrjanda byrjendur bnda bndur Dana Dani
dat byrjanda byrjendum bnda bndum Dana Dnum
gen byrjanda byrjenda bnda bnda Dana Dana

Like byrjandi; all weak masculines ending in -andi. Dani and bndi are special cases.

  [p. 36]  

Feminine

Strong declension

7)    gen sg and nom pl -ar/-jar/ -var/-r

sg pl sg pl sg pl
nom nl nlar ermi ermar kerling kerlingar
acc nl nlar ermi ermar kerlingu kerlingar
dat nl nlum ermi ermum kerlingu kerlingum
gen nlar nla ermar erma kerlingar kerlinga
nom ey eyjar st stvar r
acc ey eyjar st stvar r
dat ey eyjum st stvum m
gen eyjar eyja stvar stva r a

Feminine nouns ending in -i which take -ar in the gen sg are declined as ermi while those ending in -ing/-ung and proper names are declined like kerling.

8)    gen sg -ar, nom pl -ir

sg pl sg pl sg pl
nom hfn hafnir gjf gjafir verslun verslanir
acc hfn hafnir gjf gjafir verslun verslanir
dat hfn hfnum gjf gjfum verslun verslunum
gen hafnar hafna gjafar gjafa verslunar verslana

All nouns with the suffix -un are declined like verslun.

9)    gen sg -ar, nom pl -ur/-r

sg pl sg pl sg pl
nom bk bkur rnd rendur t tr
acc bk bkur rnd rendur t tr
dat bk bkum rnd rndum t tm
gen bkar bka randar randa tar ta

10)    gen sg -ur/-r/-ar, nom pl -ur/-r/-

sg pl sg pl sg pl sg pl
nom vk vkur mir mur kr kr ms ms
acc vk vkur mur mur k kr ms ms
dat vk vkum mur mrum k km ms msum
gen vkur vka mur mra kr ka msar msa

mir has no vowel change in the sg forms, while in the pl the vowel change is universal. dttir and systir follow the same pattern but the latter has no change in the vowel; like ms is ls.

Weak declension

11)    gen sg -u, nom pl -ur

sg pl sg pl sg pl
nom saga sgur kirkja kirkjur amma mmur
acc sgu sgur kirkju kirkjur mmu mmur
dat sgu sgum kirkju kirkjum mmu mmum
gen sgu sagna kirkju kirkna mmu amma

The presence or absence of -n- in the gen pl is partly independent of the stem.

  [p. 37]  

12)    gen sg -i, nom pl -ar/-ir.

sg pl sg pl
nom lygi lygar vi vir
acc lygi lygar vi vir
dat lygi lygum vi vum
gen lygi lyga vi va

Neuter

Strong declension

13)    gen sg -s, nom pl -

sg pl sg pl sg pl
nom barn brn tr tr kyn kyn
acc barn brn tr tr kyn kyn
dat barni brnum tr trjm kyni kynjum
gen barns barna trs trja kyns kynja
nom hgg hgg hreiur hreiur hundra hundru
acc hgg hgg hreiur hreiur hundra hundru
dat hggi hggum hreiri hreirum hundrai hundruum
gen hggs hgga hreiurs hreira hundras hundraa
nom kvi kvi rki rki
acc kvi kvi rki rki
dat kvi kvum rki rkjum
gen kvis kva rkis rkja

Weak declension

14)    gen sg -a, nom pl -u

sg pl sg pl
nom hjarta hjrtu firma firmu
acc hjarta hjrtu firma firmu
dat hjarta hjrtum firma firmum
gen hjarta hjartna firma firma

The Suffixed Article

Masculine

sg pl sg pl
nom hestur-inn hestar-nir penni-nn pennar-nir
acc hest-inn hesta-na penna-nn penna-na
dat hesti-num hestu-num penna-num pennu-num
gen hests-ins hesta-nna penna-ns penna-nna

Feminine

sg pl sg pl
nom nl-in nlar-nar saga-n sgur-nar
acc nl-ina nlar-nar sgu-na sgur-nar
dat nl-inni nlu-num sgu-nni sgu-num
gen nlar-innar nla-nna sgu-nnar sagna-nna
  [p. 38]  

Neuter

sg pl sg pl
nom barn-i brn-in hjarta- hjrtu-n
acc barn-i brn-in hjarta- hjrtu-n
dat barni-nu brnu-num hjarta-nu hjrtu-num
gen barns-ins barna-nna hjarta-ns hjartna-nna

Declension and Comparison of Adjectives

Strong declension

sg pl
m f n m f n
nom rkur rk rkt rkir rkar rk
acc rkan rka rkt rka rkar rk
dat rkum rkri rku rkum rkum rkum
gen rks rkrar rks rkra rkra rkra
nom langur lng langt langir langar lng
acc langan langa langt langa langar lng
dat lngum langri lngu lngum lngum lngum
gen langs langrar langs langra langra langra
nom hr h htt hir har h
acc han ha htt ha har h
dat hum hrri hu hum hum hum
gen hs hrrar hs hrra hrra hrra
nom fagur fgur fagurt fagrir fagrar fgur
acc fagran fagra fagurt fagra fagrar fgur
dat fgrum fagurri fgru fgrum fgrum fgrum
gen fagurs fagurrar fagurs fagurra fagurra fagurra

Most adjectives are declined like rkur and langur. Adjective stems lose the final -d or - of a consonant cluster in the n sg, nom + acc (e.g. blindur $$am blint, harur $$am hart).

If the stem ends with a vowel + , the - is assimilated with the -t (e.g. glaur $$am glatt), while a vowel + dd is assimilated as -tt (e.g. saddur $$am satt).

Adjectives containing the tense vowels -/-j/- are declined as hr, while those ending in -ur are declined like fagur (e.g. bitur, dapur, digur, lipur, magur, snotur, vitur).

sg pl
m f n m f n
nom heill heil heilt heilir heilar heil
acc heilan heila heilt heila heilar heil
dat heilum heilli heilu heilum heilum heilum
gen heils heillar heils heilla heilla heilla
nom beinn bein beint beinir beinar bein
acc beinan beina beint beina beinar bein
dat beinum beinni beinu beinum beinum beinum
gen beins beinnar beins beinna beinna beinna
  [p. 39]  

Adjectives ending in -ll and -nn (apart from gamall, einsamall, ltill, mikill, and adjectives (esp.past participles) ending in -inn) are declined like heill and beinn.

sg pl
m f n m f n
nom gamall gmul gamalt gamlir gamlar gmul
acc gamlan gamla gamalt gamla gamlar gmul
dat gmlum gamalli gmlu gmlum gmlum gmlum
gen gamals gamallar gamals gamalla gamalla gamalla
nom ltill ltil lti litlir litlar ltil
acc ltinn litla lti litla litlar ltil
dat litlum ltilli litlu litlum litlum litlum
gen ltils ltillar ltils ltilla ltilla ltilla

einsamall is declined like gamall. mikill is declined like ltill, but without changes in the vowel.

nom nr n ntt nir njar n
acc njan nja ntt nja njar n
dat njum nrri nju njum njum njum
gen ns nrrar ns nrra nrra nrra

All adjectives with nom m sg ending in -r and -sr are declined like nr, as is miur (f mi, n mitt) except that the nom m pl has the form mijir.

sg pl
m f n m f n
nom boginn bogin bogi bognir bognar bogin
acc boginn bogna bogi bogna bognar bogin
dat bognum boginni bognu bognum bognum bognum
gen bogins boginnar bogins boginna boginna boginna
nom barinn barin bari barir barar barin
acc barinn bara bari bara barar barin
dat brum barinni bru brum brum brum
gen barins barinnar barins barinna barinna barinna
nom talinn talin tali taldir taldar talin
acc talinn talda tali talda taldar talin
dat tldum talinni tldu tldum tldum tldum
gen talins talinnar talins talinna talinna talinna
nom akinn akin aki aktir aktar akin
acc akinn akta aki akta aktar akin
dat ktum akinni ktu ktum ktum ktum
gen akins akinnar akins akinna akinna akinna

Adjectives ending in -inn and the past participles of the strong verbs are declined like boginn, while the past participles of weak verbs with the ending -inn are declined like barinn (those that have -- in the preterite), like talinn (those that have -d- in the preterite), and like akinn (those that have -t- in the preterite).

Weak declension

The weak form of the nom m sg is obtained by dropping the -r of the strong form of the nom m pl, e.g. langir > langi.

  [p. 40]  
sg pl
m f n
nom langi langa langa lngu
acc langa lngu langa lngu
dat langa lngu langa lngu
gen langa lngu langa lngu

Comparatives are always inflected as weak adjectives (e.g. langur: all cases in m sg and f sg lengri, n sg lengra, pl (m, f, n) in all cases lengri.

Comparison

comp -ari, superl -astur.

pos comp superl
glaur glaari glaastur
rkur rkari rkastur
heiinn heinari heinastur
kraminn kramdari kramdastur
dapur daprari daprastur

The vast majority of adjectives form their comparatives and superlatives in this way.

comp -ri, superl -astur.

pos comp superl
skemmtilegur skemmtilegri skemmtilegastur
sljr sljrri sljastur
nr nrri njastur
heill heilli heilastur
hreinn hreinni hreinastur

The comparative -r is assimilated and disappears in adjectives whose nom m sg ends in -ll or -nn such as heill. Adjectives ending in -legur/-ugur, -ull, and --, --, --, --, --, --, -ei-, followed by -ll/-nn form their comparatives and superlatives as above.

comp -ri, superl -stur

pos comp superl
langur lengri lengstur
hr hrri hstur
str strri strstur
ungur yngri yngstur
dkkur dekkri dekkstur

Only a handful of adjectives form their comparatives and superlatives in this way.

A few comparatives and superlatives are derived from a separate stem:

pos comp superl
gamall eldri elstur
gur betri bestur
ltill minni minnstur
margur fleiri flestur
mikill meiri mestur
illur verri verstur
  [p. 41]  

Numbers

cardinal ordinal cardinal ordinal
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
einn
tveir
rr
fjrir
fimm
sex
sj
tta
nu
tu
ellefu
tlf
rettn
fjrtn
fimmtn
sextn
sautjn
(seytjn)
fyrsti
annar
riji
fjri
fimmti
sjtti
sjundi
ttundi
nundi
tundi
ellefti
tlfti
rettndi
fjrtndi
fimmtndi
sextndi
sautjndi
(seytjndi)
18
19
20
21
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
101
200
1000
2000
tjn
ntjn
tuttugu
tuttugu og einn
rjtu
fjrutu
fimmtu
sextu
sjtu
ttatu
nutu
hundra
hundra og einn
tv hundru
sund
tv sund
tjndi
ntjndi
tuttugasti
tuttugasti og fyrsti
rtugasti
fertugasti
fimmtugasti
sextugasti
sjtugasti
ttugasti
ntugasti
hundraasti
hundraasti og fyrsti
tvhundruasti
sundasti
tvsundasti

Declension of cardinal numbers

sg pl
m f n m f n
nom einn ein eitt einir einar ein
acc einn eina eitt eina einar ein
dat einum einni einu einum einum einum
gen eins einnar eins einna einna einna
pl
nom tveir tvr tv rr rjr rj
acc tvo tvr tv rj rjr rj
dat tveim(ur) tveim(ur) tveim(ur) rem(ur) rem(ur) rem(ur)
gen tveggja tveggja tveggja riggja riggja riggja
nom fjrir fjrar fjgur
acc fjra fjrar fjgur
dat fjrum fjrum fjrum
gen fjgurra fjgurra fjgurra

The unexpected plural of einn (einir, einar, ein) can be glossed as a couple. The numbers following have only the plural form. Numbers higher than four are indeclinable. The plural of hundra is hundru while that of sund is the same as the singular.

Declension of ordinal numbers

fyrsti and the ordinal numbers from riji on are declined as weak adjectives. annar has a special declension:

  [p. 42]  
sg pl
m f n m f n
nom annar nnur anna arir arar nnur
acc annan ara anna ara arar nnur
dat rum annarri ru rum rum rum
gen annars annarrar annars annarra annarra annarra

Declension of Pronouns

Personal pronouns

1st person 2nd person
sg pl pl sg pl pl
(formal) (formal)
nom g vi vr i r
acc mig okkur oss ig ykkur yur
dat mr okkur oss r ykkur yur
gen mn okkar vor n ykkar yar
3rd person Reflexive
sg pl
m f n m f n
nom hann hn a eir r au nom -
acc hann hana a r au acc sig
dat honum henni v eim eim eim dat sr
gen hans hennar ess eirra eirra eirra gen sn

Possessive pronouns

sg pl
m f n m f n
nom minn mn mitt mnir mnar mn
acc minn mna mitt mna mnar mn
dat mnum minni mnu mnum mnum mnum
gen mns minnar mns minna minna minna
nom vor vor vort vorir vorar vor
acc vorn vora vort vora vorar vor
dat vorum vorri voru vorum vorum vorum
gen vors vorrar vors vorra vorra vorra

inn and sinn are declined as minn. The only other possessive pronouns are the indeclinable genitives of the personal pronouns, hans, hennar, ess; okkar, ykkar, (yar), eirra. These are used when the subject of the sentence and the antecedent of the possessive are not the same.

  [p. 43]  

Demonstrative pronouns

sg pl
m f n m f n
nom s s a eir r au
acc ann a r au
dat eim eirri v eim eim eim
gen ess eirrar ess eirra eirra eirra
nom essi essi etta essir essar essi
acc ennan essa etta essa essar essi
dat essum essari essu essum essum essum
gen essa essarar essa essara essara essara
nom hinn hin hitt hinir hinar hin
acc hinn hina hitt hina hinar hin
dat hinum hinni hinu hinum hinum hinum
gen hins hinnar hins hinna hinna hinna

hinn as a definite article is declined as above, but has hi in the nom n sg and nom.

Interrogative pronouns

sg pl
m f n m f n
nom hver hver hva hverjir hverjar hver
hvert
acc hvern hverja hva hverja hverjar hver
hvert
dat hverjum hverri hverju hverjum hverjum hverjum
gen hvers hverrar hvers hverra hverra hverra

hva is used when the antecedent is a noun and means what. hvert is used in place of an adjective and is glossed as which. While hver means who or which of many, hvor (hvor, hvort) means who or which of the two. The latter is declined like the possessive pronoun vor.

Indefinite pronouns

sg pl
m f n m f n
nom nokkur nokkur nokku nokkrir nokkrar nokkur
nokkurt
acc nokkurn nokkra nokku nokkra nokkrar nokkur
nokkurt
dat nokkrum nokkurri nokkru nokkrum nokkrum nokkrum
gen nokkurs nokkurrar nokkurs nokkurra nokkurra nokkurra
nom enginn engin ekkert engir engar engin
acc engan enga ekkert enga engar engin
dat engum engri engu engum engum engum
gen einskis engrar einskis engra engra engra   [p. 44]  
nom mis mis mist msir msar mis
acc msan msa mist msa msar mis
dat msum missi msu msum msum msum
gen miss missar miss missa missa missa
nom bir bar bi
acc ba bar bi
dat bum bum bum
gen beggja beggja beggja

nokku is used in place of a noun and means something while the adjectival variant nokkurt means some or any. einhver is declined like the interrogative pronoun hver. neinn is declined like the number einn.

Conjugation of Verbs

Weak verbs

(preterite formed with -ai, -i, -di, -ti)

Class 1: 1st pers pres sg indic ending in -a; infinitive ending in -a, -ja, -va; any type of stem vowel; preterite formed with -ai, pp with -a.

kalla
pres indic pres subj pret indic and subj
sg 1st kalla kalli kallai
2nd kallar kallir kallair
3rd kallar kalli kallai
pl 1st kllum kllum klluum
2nd kalli kalli klluu
3rd kalla kalli klluu
imperative participles
sg 2nd kallau prp kallandi
pl 2nd kalli pp kalla

Class 2: 1st pers pres sg indic ending in -i (no ending when infinitive ends in -: n > n). Infinitive endings in -a (or -ja after g and k) or -. Preterite formed in the sg with -i, -di, -ti, pp with -t or -a.

gera, leigja, vaka
pres indic pres subj pret indic and subj
sg 1st geri geri geri
2nd gerir gerir gerir
3rd gerir geri geri
pl 1st gerum gerum gerum
2nd geri geri geru
3rd gera geri geru   [p. 45]  
imperative participles
sg 1st geru prp gerandi
pl 2nd geri pp gert
pres indic pres subj pret indic and subj
sg 1st leigi leigi leigi
2nd leigir leigir leigir
3rd leigir leigi leigi
pl 1st leigjum leigjum leigum
2nd leigi leigi leigu
3rd leigja leigi leigu
imperative participles
sg 1st leigu prp leigjandi
pl 2nd leigi pp leigt
pres indic pres subj pret indic pret subj
sg 1st vaki vaki vakti vekti
2nd vakir vakir vaktir vektir
3rd vakir vaki vakti vekti
pl 1st vkum vkum vktum vektum
2nd vaki vaki vktu vektu
3rd vaka vaki vktu vektu
imperative participles
sg 2nd vaktu prp vakandi
pl 2nd vaki pp vaka
The pres indic of hafa forms a special case:
sg 1st hef
2nd hefur
3rd hefur
pl 1st hfum
2nd hafi
3rd hafa

Also belonging to this class are verbs with vowel change in the infinitive and pres indic: segja (sagi, sagt) g segi, vi segjum; and egja (agi, aga) g egi, vi egjum. Some verbs of this type have vowel change only in the pres sg indic and not in the infinitive: hafa (hafi, haft) g hef, and vo (voi, vegi) g v, vi voum. A few verbs with final consonants in the stem take -t to form the pp: haft, horft, keypt (kaupa), sagt.

Class 3: There is no ending in 1st pers pres sg indic and the infinitive ends in -ja; vowel change in the infinitive and in the entire present tense.

telja, spyrja
pres indic pres subj pret indic pret subj
sg 1st tel telji taldi teldi
2nd telur teljir taldir teldir
3rd telur telji taldi teldi   [p. 46]  
pl 1st teljum teljum tldum teldum
2nd telji telji tldu teldu
3rd telja telji tldu teldu
sg 1st spyr spyrji spuri spyri
2nd spyr spyrjir spurir spyrir
3rd spyr spyrji spuri spyri
pl 1st spyrjum spyrjum spurum spyrum
2nd spyrji spyrji spuru spyru
3rd spyrja spyrji spuru spyru
imperative participles
pl 2nd teldu prp teljandi
spyru/spuru spyrjandi
pl 3rd telji pp tali
spyrji spurt

Preterite subjunctive of weak verbs

The preterite subjunctive of weak verbs is formed as follows: For verbs of Class 1 and 2 the preterite subjunctive has the same vowel as the preterite indicative. The main exceptions are the following:

duga dygi
fl fli
hafa hefi
n ni
segja segi
skja skti
tolla tylldi
tra tryi
ugga yggi
una yndi
vaka vekti
yrkja orti
egja egi
ola yldi
ora yri
vo vgi/vi
ykja tti

Verbs of Class 3 form their preterite subjunctive with the vowel of the pres sg, (tel), teldi.

Strong verbs

The classes of strong verbs are differentiated by changes in the vowel. Verb endings are the same as in Class 3 of weak verbs with the exception of the 2nd and 3rd pers sg pres indic, where the endings depend on the final letter in the stem; pp ends in -i.

bta
pres indic pres subj pret indic pret subj
sg 1st bt bti beit biti
2nd btur btir beist bitir
3rd btur bti beit biti   [p. 47]  
pl 1st btum btum bitum bitum
2nd bti bti bitu bitu
3rd bta bti bitu bitu
imperative particip
sg 2nd bttu prp btandi
pl 2nd bti pp biti

All strong verbs whose stems end in consonants (other than -n, -r, -s, -x) have the same endings as bta. Verbs with stems ending in -r, -s, -n and -x or that end in a vowel do not follow this rule and are conjugated as follows:

bera kjsa skna vaxa f
sg 1st ber ks skn vex f
2nd ber kst skn vex fr
3rd ber ks skn vex fr

Seven classes of vowel change

In the following table the 1st pers pres indic is given only where the stem vowel differs from that in the infinitive (i.e. where change occurs).

infinitive pres sg pret sg pret pl pp
1 class bta - beit bitu biti
2 class bja bur bau buu boi
ljga lgur laug lugu logi
spa spur saup supu sopi
3 class bresta - brast brustu brosti
finna - fann fundu fundi
gjalda geldur galt guldu goldi
4 class skera - skar skru skori
nema - nam nmu numi
5 class drepa - drap drpu drepi
sitja - sat stu seti
6 class ala elur l lu ali
7 class falla fellur fll fllu falli
lta ltur lt ltu lti
auka eykur jk juku auki
leika - lk lku leiki

The vowel changes are given alongside the relevant headword in the dictionary.

Preterite subjunctive of strong verbs

The preterite subjunctive of strong verbs is formed on the basis of the 1st pers plur pret indic with vowel changes (no vowel change for the first gradation).

1: vowel unchanged: biti.
2:   on the basis of u: byi, lygi, sypi.
3: brysti, fyndi.
4: -                    : skri, nmi.
5: - drpi, sti.
6: -                    : li.
7: -                    u: yki, jyki or with vowel unchanged: flli, lti, lki.
  [p. 48]  

Verbs with irregular present tense

These verbs are declined irregularly only in the present tense. Pret indic and subjunctive forms have the same endings as weak verbs, and so only the 1st pers sg indic (or subjunctive where there is no indicative) of the preterite is given. Only vera is irregular in the preterite as well as in the subjunctive of the present tense.

pres
eiga 1st sg 1st pl eigum
2nd tt 2nd eigi
3rd 3rd eiga
mega 1st sg m 1st pl megum
2nd mtt 2nd megi
3rd m 3rd mega
kunna 1st sg kann 1st pl kunnum
2nd kannt 2nd kunni
3nd kann 3rd kunna
unna when it means to love it is declined as kunna, when it means to allow the pp becomes unnt.
urfa 1st sg arf 1st pl urfum
2nd arft 2nd urfi
3rd arf 3rd urfa
muna 1st sg man 1st pl munum
2nd manst 2nd muni
3rd man 3rd muna
munu 1st sg mun 1st pl munum
2nd munt 2nd munu
3rd mun 3rd munu subj myndi
skulu 1st sg skal 1st pl skulum
2nd skalt 2nd skulu
3rd skal 3rd skulu subj skyldi
vilja 1st sg vil 1st pl viljum
2nd vilt 2nd vilji
3rd vill 3rd vilja
vita 1st sg veit 1st pl vitum
2nd veist 2nd viti
3rd veit 3rd vita
valda 1st sg veld 1st pl vldum
2nd veldur 2nd valdi
3rd veldur 3rd valda   [p. 49]  
vera 1st sg er 1st pl erum
2nd ert 2nd eru
3rd er 3rd eru
pret indic
1st sg var 1st pl vorum
2nd varst 2nd voru
3rd var 3rd voru
pres subj
1st sg s 1st pl sum
2nd srt 2nd su
3rd s 3rd su
pret subj
1st sg vri 1st pl vrum
2nd vrir 2nd vru
3rd vri 3rd vru

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