Heilbrigismßl - Public Health
┴ sÝari hluta 19. aldar og alla 20. ÷ldina lengdist mealŠvi ═slendinga til mikilla muna. Um mija 19. ÷ld var mealŠvi Ýslenskra karla aeins um 32 ßr og kvenna um 38 ßr. Um mija 20. ÷ld voru t÷lurnar komnar Ý 71 og 75 ßr og ßri 1990 var mealŠvi karla 75 ßr og kvenna 80 ßr. StˇrstÝgar framfarir Ý heilsugŠslumßlum ßsamt bŠttum ab˙nai, tryggari afkomu og bŠttu matarŠi eru samverkandi ■Šttir sem stuluu a ■essari miklu breytingu.
Hjartaskurager ß LandspÝtalanum-Hßskˇlasj˙krah˙si (Heart surgery being performed at the LandspÝtali-Hßskˇlasj˙krah˙s Hospital).
Markmi stjˇrnvalda Ý heilbrigismßlum eru sett fram Ý sex lium: 1) a veita brßa■jˇnustu ßn tafar, 2) a sinna heilsuvernd og heilsugŠslu, 3) a veita sÚrhŠfa ■jˇnustu Ý hßum gŠaflokki ■egar hennar er ■÷rf, 4) a veita samfellda ■jˇnustu, 5) a ■jˇnustan taki mi af ■÷rfum allrar ■jˇarinnar og 6) a jafnrŠi rÝki milli allra ■jˇfÚlags■egna.
┴hersla er l÷g ß a tryggja agang alls almennings a heilbrigis■jˇnustu ßn tillits til efna og astŠna einstaklinga og fj÷lskyldna. Almannatryggingar eru hugsaar sem ÷ryggisnet er tryggi ÷llum ■ennan agang.
Heilbrigiskerfi er dřrt og kostnaur vi ■a hefur veri vaxandi ß undanf÷rnum ßratugum. HŠkkandi mealaldur ■jˇarinnar veldur ■essu, auk st÷ugt fullkomnari og dřrari tŠkja til sj˙kdˇmsgreininga og lŠkninga. Ůß eru sÝfellt a koma ß marka nř, betri og dřrari lyf.
Mikil umrŠa hefur fari fram ß ═slandi, sem vÝa annars staar, um kostna Ý heilbrigiskerfinu. Ekki fara alltaf saman hugmyndir og agerir stjˇrnvalda Ý ■eim efnum og skoanir ■eirra sem starfa ß vettvangi og ■eirra sem sŠkja ■jˇnustuna. Miki er tala um sparna og ahaldsagerir stjˇrnvalda eru gagnrřndar. Ůˇ er heilbrigis■jˇnusta ß ═slandi me ■vÝ sem best gerist Ý heiminum. Sj˙krah˙s eru b˙in fullkomnustu tŠkjum og vel menntuu starfslii og fj÷ldi heilsugŠslust÷va tryggir greian agang a lŠknis■jˇnustu.
In the second part of the nineteenth-century and throughout the twentieth-century, Icelanders' average lifespan increased greatly. In the mid nineteenth-century, the average lifespan of Icelandic men was only 32 years, and for women about 38 years. In the middle of the twentieth-century, these statistics had become 71 and 75 years, and in 1990 the average male lifespan was 75, and for women 80 years. Great strides in areas of health care together with improved living conditions, a more secure employment situation, and better diet have combined to create this considerable change.
The aims of authorities in the public health system are set out in six divisions: 1) to provide emergency assistance without delay, 2) to work for the maintenance of good health care and medical centres, 3) to provide specialist care of a high quality when it is needed, 4) to provide continuous care, 5) that the service take account of the needs of all Icelanders, 6) to distribute the resources equally between all citizens.
Emphasis is laid on ensuring access by all the general public to the public health service without consideration of the wealth or circumstances of the individual and family. Social security is thought of as a safety net which guarantees access for all.
The health system is expensive and the costs associated with it have been increasing in recent decades. An increase in the average age of the population is responsible for this as well as steady improvements, and more expensive equipment, in diagnosis and treatment. Further, new, better, and more expensive medicine is constantly coming onto the market.
As in many other countries, there has been a lot of debate in Iceland about the cost of the health care system. The ideas and processes adopted by the authorities do not always coincide with the views of those who work in the field or those who seek medical care. There is a lot of discussion about cost cutting, and the authorities' attempts at rationalization have been criticized. However, health care in Iceland is amongst the world's best. The hospitals are provided with the most advanced equipment and well-trained staff, and the many health centres ensure easy access to medical services.
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