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The Day's food in war and peace
([ca.1918])

Lesson VII: [Fruits and vegetables],   pp. 76-87 PDF (3.5 MB)


Page 76

LESSON VII. 
Fruits and vegetables are used in the diet to give pleasant flavor 
and varied texture. 
They are important not only for this but because they give bulk 
and are laxative; because they contain valuable mineral salts, such 
as lime and iron; and because they furnish the dietary essentials 
sometimes called vitamines. 
Fruits and vegetables are much alike in the kind of food material 
they contain. 
Most fruits and vegetables contain a great deal of water. Watery 
ones like cabbage, celery, spinach, and berries have as much as 90 
to 95 per cent. The starchy vegetables, such as potatoes, sweet 
potatoes, peas, beans, have much less, as do bananas and grapes. 
Most fruits and vegetables have only a little protein. This is 
not true of beans and peas with their many varieties, and other 
members of the legume family, such as lentils. 'Fresh lima beans 
and green peas have 7 per cent protein. Dried legumes have from 
18 per cent to 25 per cent. This is the reason why they may be used 
as meat substitutes, but they should not be used as the only source 
of protein. 
Many fruits and vegetables contain a good deal of sugar or starch. 
Potatoes are about one-fifth starch, sweet potatoes have still more 
starch and sugar, green bananas are more than a fifth starch, most 
of it changing to sugar when they are ripe. Grapes are almost one- 
fifth sugar. Dried fruits, raisins, prunes, dates, figs, contain, a 
great deal of sugar. 
Starchy vegetables may be used in place of wheat. Fruits may 
be used in place of sugar. 
The leafy vegetables have especial value. Like milk, though to 
a less extent, they can correct the defiiencies found in most other 
foods. They, as well as milk, may be called protective foods. 


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