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Anslow, Florence / Practical millinery

Chapter IV: Shape-making,   pp. 46-54 PDF (2.0 MB)

Page 46

T   HE   materials used for   the  making   of shapes are- 
      (1) ESPATRA.-This is made from         bleached cream- 
coloured grass grown for the purpose. There are three qualities : 
(a) stiff, (b) medium, (c) fine and soft. (a) and (b) have a plaited 
backing of the shredded grass and a fine white muslin stretched 
over one side of the grass basket-work. (c) has no muslin over 
the basket-work, and is not stiffened in the finishing procesess 
as (a) and (b) are. The espatra is woven about 48 in. wide, is 
usually cut to 24 in. width for convenience, and sold in sheets 
about 27 in. to 30 in. x 24 in., though when hat brims were more 
than ordinarily large the espatra was sold in 48 in. width. 
   (2) COTTON     ESPATRA     is very similar in colour and 
character but is woven entirely from cotton. Strands of cotton 
are plaited to form a background of fine canvas, over which a 
fine woven muslin is stretched and then stiffened. 
   (3) WILLOW BUCKRAM is also like espatra, but has a 
backing of plaited willow which is coarser than the shredded 
espatra grass. 
   (4) BUCKRAM consists of several layers of coarse muslin, 
with a finer one on the surface, well pressed together and stiffened 
with gum or paste. It is manufactured in black and white, and 
is from 24 in. to 27 in. in width. 
   (5) MARLEY NET is a coarse-meshed cotton net that is 
highly sized and glazed, and manufactured in black and white, 
in 24 in. width. 
   (6) STIFF NET is softer and finer than Marley net and is 
slightly glazed on the right side. It is 24 in. wide and is 
manufactured in black, white, cream, and many other colours. 

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