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Wolff, R. L.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The later Crusades, 1189-1311

XI: The Fifth Crusade,   pp. 376-428 PDF (20.5 MB)

Page 378

his efforts on the organization of a new crusade in the west. Yet conditions
in western Europe were hardly favorable for the enter prise: Germany was
torn by the conflict between Philip of Swabia and Otto of Brunswick, and
after the assassination of Philip in 1 208, it soon became apparent that
Otto's imperial ambitions were ir reconcilable with the papal plans. In France
the nobility was engaged in the war against the Albigensians, enjoying privileges
and immunities similar to those of crusaders in Syria. The bitter territorial
conflict between Philip Augustus and John Lackland preoccupied both monarchs,
while the attention of Spain was absorbed by the crusade against the Muwahhids
(Almohads). The mystical appeal, which had evoked a universal response in
earlier crusades, now led only to such flascos as the Children's Crusade.
It was not until 1213 that Innocent III at last sent forth his letters summoning
the leaders of Christendom to a great council to be held in November 1 215,
at the same time announcing that the causes nearest his heart were the reformation
of the universal church and the conquest of the Holy Land.' 
 The tone of Innocent's letters leaves no doubt that he was determined to
take every precaution to insure that the plans did not miscarry through falling
into the hands of others than the chosen agents of the church. What is usually
designated as the Fifth Crusade was to be above all else a papal crusade.
is H. Hoogeweg, "Der Kreuzzug von Damietta," Mittheilungen des Osterreichischen
Instituts für Geschichtsforschung VIII, IX; of lesser importance but
useful for details of the expedition and the siege of Damietta is: M. Reinaud,
"Histoire de la sixieme croisade et de la prise de Damiette d'après
les écrivains arabes," Journal asiatique, VIII (r8z6), i8 if. The
financing of the crusade and, particularly, the role of the Templars is treated
by L. Delisle, "Mémoire sur les operations financières des
templiers," Mémoires de l' Institut national de France; Academie des
inscrzptions et belles lettres, XXXIII, part 2 (Paris, 1889), 1—250.
 The most thoroughgoing effort to deal with Francis of Assisi and his visit
to Damietta is G. Golubovich, "San Francesco e i Francescani in Damiata,
5 Nov. 1219—2 Feb. 1220," Studi Francescani, XXIII (n.s., XII;
1926), 307—330; and supplementing this, see P. L. Lemmens, "De Sancto
Francisco Christum praedicante coram sultano Aegypti," Archivum historicum
Franciscanum, XIX (1926), 559—578, and Nazzareno Jacopozzi, "Dove sia
evvenuta Ia visita di San Francesco d'Assisi al Sultano Malek el-Kamel,"
Congrés international de géographie, le Caire — Avril,
1925, V (Cairo, 1926), and more recently M. Roncaglia, "San Francesco d'Assisi
in Oriente," Studi Francescani, L (1953), 97—106. 
 Biographical works dealing with leading personages are L. Böhm, Johann
von Brienne (Heidelberg, 1938); J. Clausen, Papst Honorius III., 1216—1227
(Bonn, 1895); O. Hassler, Felagius Galvani (Basel, 1902); J. P. Donovan,
S.J., Felagius and the Fifth Crusade (diss., University of Pennsylvania;
Philadelphia, 1950); D. Mansilla, "El Cardenal hispano Pelayo Gaitan (1206—1230),"
Anthologica Annua, I(1953), 11-66, a spirited defense, based chiefly on the
papal letters; W. Junckmann, "Magister Oliverius Scholasticus, Bischof von
Paderborn, Kardinalbischof von S. Sabina, und der Kreuzzug von Damiette,"
Katholische Zeitschrift (Munster, 1851); and L. C. F. Petit—Radel,
"Olivier ou Olivarius,écolâtre de Cologne, cardinal évêque
de Sabine," Histoire littéraire de la France, XVIII (1895), 14-29.
 1 PL, CCXVI, cols. 823 ff. 

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