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Wolff, R. L.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The later Crusades, 1189-1311
(1969)

VI: The Latin Empire of Constantinople, 1204-1261,   pp. 186-233 PDF (19.2 MB)


Page 197

Ch. VI THE LATIN EMPIRE OF CONSTANTINOPLE 197 
Innocent wanted to proceed by persuasion; he quite understood the terrible
effect of the sack of Constantinople: "How can the church of the Greeks,"
he wrote, "be expected to return to devotion to the apostolic see, when
it has seen the Latins setting an example of evil, and doing the devil's
work, so that already, and with good reason, the Greeks hate them worse than
dogs?" <8> 
 Morosini, who was contentious and hot-tempered, only made matters worse.
He quarreled with all his fellow-Latins, even the podestà of the Venetians.
On one occasion he stopped Greek services in all churches in Constantinople
because the Greek clergy refused to mention his name in their prayers, an
act which would have been tantamount to recognizing the Latin patriarch.
Nor were repeated debates on the questions at issue, theological and others,
of any avail. The Greeks looked across the straits to Nicaea, where a new
Greek emperor by 1208 had a new Greek patriarch. Most Greek bishops fled
their sees or refused obedience to Morosini. Those few that accepted him
balked at accepting a new consecration according to the rites of the Latin
church, no doubt feeling that this would constitute a tacit admission that
their earlier consecration according to the Greek rite had been uncanonical.
The pope commanded Morosini to overlook these refusals of a new consecration.
Even in cases where the Greek incumbent refused submission, he was to be
summoned thrice before he could be suspended and excommunicated. And only
the papal legate might thereafter replace him by a Latin. Everywhere the
lower level of the clergy remained Greek, continuing to marry and have families
(their sons had to render military service unless they had taken orders),
and paying the customary Greek land tax (the akrostikon) to the secular authorities.
 The Latins did not limit themselves to the substitution of Latin prelates
for Greek ones. Largely for financial reasons, they gradually brought about
a substantial reorganization of the Byzantine hierarchy of metropolitan sees,
with their suffragan bishoprics, and autocephalous archbishoprics without
suffragan sees. Sometimes they reduced former Greek metropolitan sees or
autocephalous archbishoprics to the level of suffragan bishoprics. Sometimes
they elevated to the level of archbishoprics sees which under the Greeks
had been suffragan bishoprics only. Sometimes they put suffragan bishoprics
under the jurisdiction of former Byzantine autocephalous archbishoprics which
had not previously possessed any. Some times they founded entirely new bishoprics
or even metropolitan 
 8 PL, CCXV, col. 699 (no. 126); Potthast, Regesta, no. 2564, July 12, 1205.


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