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Wolff, R. L.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The later Crusades, 1189-1311
(1969)

II: The Third Crusade: Richard the Lionhearted and Philip Augustus,   pp. 44-85 PDF (16.5 MB)


Page 61

Ch. II THE THIRD CRUSADE: RICHARD AND PHILIP 61 
Richard's lands in 1188-1189. Richard insisted that William leave the crusading
host, and only long, patient negotiation by Philip and his nobles persuaded
him to relent.27 
 Early in 1191 a new cloud appeared to darken the relations between the two
kings. Although Richard was still officially affianced to Alice of France,
he had entrusted his mother Eleanor with the task of finding him another
bride. She had persuaded King Sancho VI of Navarre to give Richard his daughter
Berengaria. Early in January Eleanor and Berengaria reached northern Italy
on their way to Messina. Apparently they were escorted by a belated French
crusader, Philip of Alsace, count of Flanders. The approach of Berengaria
made the problem of Alice acute. Late in February Philip of Flanders left
his fair companions at Naples and proceeded by ship to Messina. This old
and experienced politician seems to have brought the two kings together to
clear up the points in dispute between them. As the French and English versions
of the treaty concluded differ decidedly, we shall probably never know just
what the agreement was, but it is clear that Philip released Richard from
his promise to marry Alice, Richard promised Philip 10,000 marks payable
in Normandy, and various territorial settlements were made. On March 30 Philip
sailed from Messina on his way to Acre.28 
 Queen Eleanor was as unhurried a tourist as her son, and it was the end
of March before she reached Reggio in Calabria. There Richard met his mother
and fiancée and escorted them to Messina. As early as February the
king had been disturbed by reports of the quarrels among the rulers of England
and had decided to send home Walter of Coutances, archbishop of Rouen. Early
in April the archbishop and the aged queen departed for England. Berengaria
was placed in the care of Queen Joan of Sicily, who was to accompany her
brother to Palestine. On April 10, 1191, Richard's fleet sailed from Messina.
 According to the contemporary chronicles, Richard's fleet as it sailed from
Messina consisted of about 180 ships and 39 galleys ranged in eight divisions.
The first line was composed of three very large ships, one of which carried
Joan and Berengaria and the other two the royal treasure. Then followed six
lines of ships. 
 27 Estoire, p. 68; Gesta, II, 155-156; Rigord, pp. 106-107; Itinerarium,
p. 169. The Itinerarium seems to say that Richard gave Philip half the money,
but it is difficult to reject Rigord's clear statement. 
 28 Gesta, II, 157, 160-161, 236; Itinerarium, pp. 175-176; Thomas Rymer,
Foedera (Record Commission, London, 1816), I, part I, 54. 


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