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Wolff, R. L.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The later Crusades, 1189-1311
(1969)

II: The Third Crusade: Richard the Lionhearted and Philip Augustus,   pp. 44-85 PDF (16.5 MB)


Page 60

60 A HISTORY OF THE CRUSADES II 
Sicily. After the conclusion of the treaty, the English returned the plunder
taken from Messina.25 
 The relations between Richard and Philip Augustus during their stay in Sicily
were rather better than one would have expected, and both monarchs showed
unusual forbearance. When the people of Messina attacked the English, the
French refused to aid their crusading allies; yet once the city was captured
Philip insisted that his standard should fly beside Richard's on its walls.
Richard was annoyed, but gave way. A few days later the two kings combined
to issue regulations governing the crusading armies. If a man died on the
crusade, he could dispose of half the property he had with him by will, so
long as he did not leave it to legatees at home, but to fellow-crusaders
or to religious foundations in Palestine. The other half was placed in the
hands of a committee of prelates and barons for the benefit of the crusade
as a whole. No one in the army except knights and clerics was to gamble,
and they were forbidden to lose more than 20 shillings in 24 hours. The kings
could gamble as much as they pleased, and the servants in their courts could
do so if they kept within the 20-shilling limit. No sailor or ordinary soldier
was to change masters without permission. Speculation in food was forbidden
and mercantile profits were limited to ten per cent. The prices of bread
and wine were regulated. Finally, a penny sterling was declared to be worth
4 pennies Angevin.26 
 The treaty between Richard and Tancred brought up a question that was to
be a frequent cause of friction between the two crusading monarchs. Before
they had left V├ęzelay, the two kings had agreed to share all conquests
equally, and apparently Philip demanded half the money Richard obtained from
Tancred. As it is difficult to see how Philip could reasonably regard this
as spoils of conquest, the compromise by which Richard gave Philip one third
seems a decided tribute to Richard's generosity and desire for peace. It
is likely that it was this windfall which enabled Philip to make generous
gifts of money to his noble followers at Christmas - 1,000 marks to the duke
of Burgundy, 600 to the count of Nevers, and lesser sums to many others.
Soon it was Philip who needed patience. In a mock tourney fought with reeds
Richard fell into a silly quarrel with a Poitevin knight, William of Les
Barres. Actually it was probably a flaring up of ancient grievances. William
was the most noted French warrior of his day and one of Philip's most trusted
captains. He had commanded French forces raiding 
 25 Gesta, II, 133-136; Itinerarium, pp. 169-170; Rigord, pp. 106-107; Devizes,
p. 401. 
 26 Estoire, p. 60; Gesta, II, 129-132. 


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