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Wolff, R. L.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The later Crusades, 1189-1311

II: The Third Crusade: Richard the Lionhearted and Philip Augustus,   pp. 44-85 PDF (16.5 MB)

Page 56

pagne, and Hugh of Burgundy had their own expeditions to finance. As to Philip's
expenses we have only one useful figure - he paid the Genoese 5,850 marks
to transport his army and to supply food for men and horses for eight months.17
Unfortunately the con tract does not specify what kind of marks were meant
- the mark of Paris was worth about one third as much as a mark sterling.
The chroniclers indicate fairly clearly that throughout his crusade Philip
was less well supplied with funds than was Richard. 
 King Richard spent May and early June of 1190 in a rapid survey of his duchy
of Aquitaine. On June 18 he arrived at his castle of Chinon for a week's
stay. While there he appointed the commanders of his fleet and issued ordinances
for its government. The commanders were Gerard, archbishop of Auch; Bernard,
bishop of Bayonne; Robert of Sable, the most powerful baron of Anjou; William
of Fors, a Poitevin lord; and an English knight, Richard de Camville. The
ordinances provided punishments for offences committed aboard the fleet.
Thus if one man killed another, he was to be tied to the corpse and thrown
into the sea. Richard de Camville was at Chinon when these decrees were issued.
It seems probable that he and Robert of Sable took ship soon after. William
of Fors was still with Richard at Vézelay on July 3. It is quite possible
that the archbishop of Auch and the bishop of Bayonne had already started.
Certainly an English fleet had sailed in April, and had followed the well-established
custom of stopping in Portugal to strike a few blows at the Moslems there.
In late June or early July Richard de Camville and Robert of Sable joined
the advance squadron at Lisbon with 63 ships. When king Richard issued his
severe, almost savage, ordinances for governing his fleet, he judged the
nature of his seamen only too well. The sailors invaded Lisbon, raping and
plundering at will, and their two commanders had considerable trouble reducing
them to order. They finally sailed from Lisbon on July 24. At the mouth of
the Tagus River they met William of Fors with 33 ships, and the whole fleet
proceeded on its voyage. 18 
 On June 24, 1190, King Richard went from Chinon to Tours, where he stayed
until the 27th. At Tours he solemnly received the scrip and staff of a pilgrim
from the hands of archbishop Bartholomew. From Tours he rode eastward up
the valley of the Cher, crossed the Loire at Sancerre, and arrived in Vézelay
on July 2. 19 
 17 Gesta, II, 74; Rigord, p. 88; Lot, L'Art militaire, I, 158, n. 2. 
 18 Gesta, II, 110-111, 115-120; Hoveden, III, 33-36, 42-46; Landon, Itinerary,
pp. 33-34, 36. 
 19 Ibid.; Hoveden, III, 36-37. 

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