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Wolff, R. L.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The later Crusades, 1189-1311
(1969)

II: The Third Crusade: Richard the Lionhearted and Philip Augustus,   pp. 44-85 PDF (16.5 MB)


Page 49

Ch. II THE THIRD CRUSADE: RICHARD AND PHILIP 49 
In November 1188 he demanded that Henry require all his vassals to do homage
to Richard as his heir. When Henry refused, Richard did homage to Philip
for the fiefs held in France by the house of Anjou. Late in May 1189 Philip
and Richard demanded that John take the cross. Henry's refusal to agree to
this sent Richard into open rebellion. On July 6, 1189, Henry died at Chinon.
On July Richard had a conference with Philip and renewed his promise to marry
Alice - a promise he clearly had no intention of keeping. On September 3
Richard was solemnly crowned king of England. 
 In November 1189 king Philip sent Rotrou, count of Perche, to England to
inform Richard that he and his barons had agreed to meet at Vezelay on April
1 to set out on the crusade. Richard had taken the cross earlier than had
his father and Philip. He delighted in war in all its forms and was an enthusiast
for adventure. Hence he willingly accepted Philip's challenge. At a council
held in London the count of Perche swore that Philip would keep the rendezvous,
and William de Mandeville, earl of Essex and count of Aumale, swore that
Richard would join him. On December 30 the two kings met at Nonancourt to
complete their arrangements. In a formal document they announced their intention
to go on the crusade. Philip promised to treat Richard as his friend and
vassal, while Richard was to behave toward Philip as to his lord and friend.
All crusaders in the two realms were to join the host unless specifically
excused. The property of all crusaders was to be safeguarded. Peace was to
reign between the two kingdoms, and the governors of each were to aid the
other in case of need. On March 30, 1190, the kings confirmed this agreement
but postponed the meeting at V├ęzelay until July 1. 7 
 While the kings of France and England fought, conferred, pre pared, and
delayed, the effort to restore the kingdom of Jerusalem that is usually known
as the Third Crusade gained momentum. The emperor Frederick Barbarossa marched
from Regensburg (Ratisbon) on May 11, 1189, with a strong army of mounted
men and headed east through Hungary. After successfully crossing Asia Minor,
the emperor was drowned in the "Saleph" river, (Calycadnus) on
June 10, 1190. Some ten days later, his army reached Antioch under the command
of his son Frederick, duke of Swabia. But the comforts of Antioch were too
much for the troops exhausted by long marches and bitter battles. Some died
there and most of the rest went home. When Frederick of Swabia advanced 
 7 Gesta, II, 92-93, 104-105; Diceto, II, 50, 73-74; Hoveden, III, 19, 30-31.


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