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Wolff, R. L.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The later Crusades, 1189-1311
(1969)

II: The Third Crusade: Richard the Lionhearted and Philip Augustus,   pp. 44-85 PDF (16.5 MB)


Page 45

II 
THE THIRD CRUSADE: 
RICHARD THE LIONHEARTED 
AND PHILIP AUGUSTUS 
 On July 4, 1187, the levies of the kingdom of Jerusalem, reinforced by members
of the military orders, contingents from the county of Tripoli, and itinerant
crusaders, were routed at Hattin near Tiberias by Saladin, sultan of Egypt,
Damascus, and Aleppo. Guy of Lusignan, king of Jerusalem; his brother Aimery,
constable of the kingdom; the masters of the Temple and the Hospital; 
 The fullest account of the crusade of Richard I (the Lionhearted) of England
and Philip II (Augustus) of France is the Estoire de la guerre sainte. This
work has been translated by Merton Jerome Hubert as The Crusade of Richard
Lion-heart (New York, 1941). John L. La Monte provided extensive notes, which
in general give the testimony of the other sources on most questions of importance.
This book also contains an excellent bibliography of both source materials
and modern works on this crusade. It will be cited as Estoire. Lionel Landon,
The Itinerary of King Richardi (Pipe Roll Society, London, 1935), gives a
day by day account of Richard's activities with citations of the relevant
sources. The Itinerarium peregrinorum et gesta regis Ricardi (ed. William
Stubbs in Chronicles and Memorials of the Reign of Richard I, 2 vols., Rolls
Series, XXX VIII) is drawn from the same source as the Estoire and differs
little from it. It is cited as Itinerarium. Two other valuable and very closely
related chronicles are the Gesta regis Henrici II, ascribed to abbot Benedict
of Peterborough and edited by William Stubbs (2 vols., Rolls Series, XLIX),
and Roger of "Hoveden" (Howden), Chronica (ed. William Stubbs,
4 vols., Rolls Series, LI). These are cited as Gesta and Hoveden. Other useful
English chronicles are Richard of Devizes, De rebus gestis Ricardiprimi (ed.
Richard Howlett, in Chronicles of the Reigns of Stephen, Henry II, and Richard
l, vol. III, Rolls Series, LXXXII), and Ralph de Diceto (of "Dicetum",
not identified), Opera historica (ed. William Stubbs, 2 vols., Rolls Series,
LX VIII). These are cited as Devizes and Diceto. The French side of the crusade
is much more meagerly presented. The only reasonably full French account
is in Rigord, Gesta Philippi Augusti (ed. H. F. Delaborde, Oeuvres de Rigord
et de Guillaume le Breton, Société de l'histoire de France,
Paris, 1885), I. There are two other closely related chronicles in French,
but they represent the point of view of the Syrian and Palestinian baronage.
These are the Chronique d'Ernoul et de Bernard le Trésorier (ed. L.
de Mas Latrie, Société de l'histoire de France, Paris, 1871)
and Le Livre d'Eracles Empereur (RHC, 0cc., II). Of a number of Moslem works
which bear on this crusade the most valuable is Bahã'-ad-Din's biography
of Saladin (RHC, Or., III), which is cited in the translation by C. W. Wilson
for the Palestine Pilgrim's Text Society (London, 1896). Very extensive use
has also been made of a manuscript entitled "Saladin in the Third Crusade"
by Sir Hamilton A. R. Gibb, who has very generously made it available to
the author of this chapter. 
 The two basic secondary works on this crusade are Kate Norgate, Richard
the Lion Heart (London, 1924), and the second volume of Alexander Cartellieri,
Philipp II. August (Leipzig, 1906). For the military history Charles Oman,
A History of the Art of War in the Middle Ages (Boston, 1923) and Ferdinand
Lot, L'Art militaire et les armées au moyen-age (Paris, 1946) are
very useful. 
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