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Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The fourteenth and fifteenth centuries
(1975)

XVI: The German Crusade on the Baltic,   pp. 545-585 PDF (16.2 MB)


Page 573

Ch. XVI 
THE GERMAN CRUSADE ON THE BALTIC 
573 
of Brandenberg carried the advance into Samland, where in honor of Ottokar
Konigsberg was built (1254). 
 While the Pogesanians, Varmians, Bartens, Natangians, and Samlanders were
being incorporated into the order's state, a second revolt broke out in 1260.
It was precipitated when the Lithuanians seriously defeated the Livonian
branch of the order at Durben in Samogitia (Samaiten, September 20, 1260).
It was again only the Pomesanians who remained aloof from a merciless attack
upon the Christians. On this occasion the Prussians were well organized under
native leaders such as Giande (Samland), Herkus Monte (Natangia), Giappe
(Ermland), Auttume (Pogesania), and Diwane (Bartens). The Knights held out
only in the strongholds of Thorn, Kulm, Elbing, Christburg, Balga, and Königsberg.
Braunsberg and Heilsberg were starved out and burned; Kreuzberg and Bartenstein
were taken. The revolters were assisted by the still pagan and unconquered
Nadrav ians, Schalavians, and Sudavians of the south and east, and these
in turn by the Lithuanians. New crusades enabled the Knights ruthlessly to
put down this revolt. They were led by duke Albert I of Bruns wick and landgrave
Albert of Thuringia (1264—1265), margrave Otto of Brandenburg (1266),
king Ottokar of Bohemia (1267), and margrave Dietrich of Landsberg (1272).
After the Nadravians, Schalav ians, and Sudavians had been virtually exterminated,
deported, or driven into Lithuania, and over half of Prussia had been turned
into a wilderness, the revolt came to an end (1283). Thereafter there were
but sporadic outbursts, notably a revolt in Samland in 1295 under the leadership
of Naudote. 
 The ferocity with which the revolt of 1260 was suppressed marked the final
escape of the order from the limitations which the papacy had tried to put
upon subjection and conversion of the Prussians. The treaty of Christburg
in 1249 had sought to establish the princi pie that a voluntary return to
Christianity would bring the Prussians, under the immediate but mild suzerainty
of the order, a guarantee of the liberties they had formerly enjoyed, and
the new Christian freedom of citizenship in a large papal community. The
treaty was made with the rebelling Pomesanians, Pogesanians, Varmians, Na
tangians, and Bartens as a group and as equal partners in the negotia tion.
They were guaranteed their personal freedom and their prop erty. The conditions
under which the latter was to be bought, sold, and inherited were precisely
regulated. They were to engage in no further conspiracies against the order.
The pagan burial and marriage customs to be abandoned were enumerated and
the new Christian obligations, including tithes and participation in crusades,
prescribed. 


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