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Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The fourteenth and fifteenth centuries
(1975)

VI: The Catalans in Greece, 1311-1380,   pp. 167-224 PDF (23.4 MB)


Page 170

 170 A HISTORY OF THE CRUSADES 
Athens.2 They served him for six months against the Greek rulers of Thessaly
and Epirus and against the emperor Andronicus himself; they won him lands
and castles in southern Thessaly; and when his use for them was done, he
sought to dismiss them, although he still owed them four months' wages. He
chose from among them two hundred knights and three hundred almogàvers;
to these he paid what he owed them, gave them lands, and enfranchised them;
the others he ordered to be gone. But the Company claimed the right to hold
of him, as fiefs, some strongholds which they had taken in southern Thessaly,
and which they refused to give up to him, for they had nowhere else to go.
The duke of Athens and the Catalan Company spent the fall and winter of 1310—1311
in preparation for the struggle which should decide who would go and who
would stay. The Company was 
 2. The chronology of the movements of the Catalan Company has caused muchdiffi
culty. Roger de Flor and the Company arrived in Constantinople some time
in September 1303 (their arrival has often been, by error, referred to the
second half of 1302): they are declared in a Venetian document dated September
27, 1319, to have sacked the island of Ceos, on their way, on August 18,
1303 (G. M. Thomas, ed., Diplomatarium veneto-levanti num, I [1880, repr.
1965], no. 76, p. 138, and cf. nos. 77, 79, pp. 149, 163; Rubió, Dipl.,
doc. CXI, p. 135, and cf. doc. CXIII, pp. 137—13 8). The Company had
more or less fixedly encamped in Gallipoli by October 1304, where they remained,
after the murder of Roger de Flor (April 30, 1305), until June 1307; all
the events described in Muntaner, Cronica, ch. CCXXX-CCXXXVI (ed. Lanz, pp.
407—423; ed. E. B., VI, 7 8—99), took place in June, July, and
August of 1307. Rubió's Dipl., docs. I-XLIV, pp. 1—55, is a
most valuable and convenient assemblage of documents concerning the Company's
eastern expedition and its early leaders, especially Berenguer de Entença.
 The Greeks had reason to fear the Catalans. Although on October 30, 1303,
king James II of Aragon wrote Berenguer de Entenca and Roger de Flor, thanking
them for their assistance in arranging a projected alliance with emperor
Andronicus II Palaeologus (Dipl., doc. IX, pp. 9—10), the intentions
of Roger de Flor became not unreasonably suspect by the early summer of 1304,
when his former employer king Frederick II of Sicily may have entertained
the hope of conquering the Byzantine empire (Dipl., doc. XI, pp. 11—12,
dating from early July 1304: "Item fa a saber lo dit senyor rey Frederic.
. . que ell [enten] sobra lo feit de Romania, ço es asaber de conquerirla.
. ."). A letter of May 10, 1305, written by Entenca from Gallipoli to Peter
Gradenigo, doge of Venice, relates that "ad presens guerificamus cum domino
imperatore [Andronico II Palaeologo] ," and informs him briefly "de statu
nostro et homicidio infideliter facto [i.e., Rogerii] de mandato eiusdem
domini imperatoris per Michaelem [IX] filium eiusdem" (I Libri commemoriali
de!!a repub!ica di Venezia: Regesti, lib. I, no. 240, ed. R. Predelli, I
[Venice, 1876], 51; published in full in Dipl., doc. XIV, pp. 15—16).
The memorandum published by Heinrich Finke, Acta aragon ensia, II (Berlin
and Leipzig, 1908), no. 431, pp. 681—686, and reprinted by Rubio, Dipl.,
doc. XV, pp. 16—19, summarily traces the history of the Company from
Sicily through some of their eastern adventures until Entenca was captured
by Genoese assisting the emperor, and up to the point where the Catalans
achieved an obscure victory over the Greeks about July 1, 1305 (on which
see in general the data in Franz Dolger, Regesten der Kaiserurkunden des
oströmischen Reiches, part 4 [Munich and Berlin, 1960], nos. 2246, 2249,
2252, 2258, 2263, 2268—2269, 2271, 2273—2274, 2277—2279,
2281—2282, 2285, pp. 38—46, and Roger Sablonier, Krieg und Kriegertum
in der Crdnica des Ramon Muntaner [Berne and Frankfurt am M., 1971]). 


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