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Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The fourteenth and fifteenth centuries

II: Byzantium and the Crusades, 1261-1354,   pp. [unnumbered]-68 PDF (16.6 MB)

Page 27

 II 27 
CRUSADES, 1261—1354 
 From the first the Byzantine empire had been intimately con nected with
the movement of the western crusades to the Holy Land. It had perhaps even
been the appeals of Alexius I Comnenus for aid against the Selchükid
Turks that had put into the head of pope 
 The principal Greek historians for the period 1261—1453, of primary
importance for the Byzantine aspect of the later crusades, are George Pachymeres,
De Michaele et Andronico Palaeologis libri XIII (ed. I. Bekker, CSHB, 2 vols.,
Bonn, 1835); Nicephorus Gregoras., Byzantina historia (ed. L. Schopen and
I. Bekker, CSHB, 3 vols., Bonn, 1829—1 855); John Cantacuzenus, Historiarum
libri IV (ed. L. Schopen, CSHB, 3 vols., Bonn, 1828—1832); George Sphrantzes,
Annales (ed. I. Bekker, CSHB, Bonn, 1838, and ed. J. B. Papadopulos, 2 vols.,
Leipzig, 1935—1954) [while his Chronicon minus is accepted as authentic,
the Chronicon maius is disputed, and has been termed a later compilation
by Macarius Melis senus]; Laonicus Chalcocondylas, De origine ac rebus Turcorum
(ed. I. Bekker, CSHB, Bonn, 1843, and ed. E. Darkó, Historiarum demonstrationes,
2 vols. in 3, Budapest, 1922—1927); and Ducas, Historia byzantina (ed.
I. Bekker, CSHB, Bonn, 1834, and ed. V. Grecu, Istorija turco-bizantina 1341—1462,
Bucharest, 1958). All of these are also published in Migne, Patrologia graeca
(PG). Further source material is cited in F. J. Dolger, Regesten der Kaiserurkunden
des oströmjschen Reiches.. . , parts 3—5 (Munich and Berlin, 1932—
 Very little has been written specifically on Byzantine attitudes toward
the later western crusades; see V. Laurent, "L'Idée de guerre sainte
et la tradition byzantine," Revue historique du sud-est européen,
XXIII (1946), 71—98; P. Lemerle, "Byzance et la croisade," Relazioni
del X Congresso Internazionale di Scienze Storiche, III (Florence, 1955),
595 ff.; and J. Bouquet's brief "Byzance et les dernières offensives
de l'Occident contre Islam," Congrès de l'Ordre International Constantinien
(zurich, 1961), pp. 1—15. 
 Western sources and monographs, on the other hand, which touch on the Byzantine
involvement in the later period are extremely numerous; only a few can be
cited here. First we note the general works by A. S. Atiya, The Crusade in
the Later Middle Ages (London, 1938), covering the entire movement but emphasizing
the western and Arab sides; J. Delaville Le Roulx, La France en Orient au
xive siècle (Paris, 1886); N. Iorga, Philippe de Mézières
(1 32 7—1405) et la croisade au xive siècle (Paris, 1896); A.
Luttrell, "The Crusade in the Fourteenth Century," in J. Hale et al., eds.,
Europe in the Later Middle Ages (London, 1965), pp. 122—154; and P.
Lemerle, L'Emfrat d'Aydin, Byzance et l'Occident (Paris, 1957). Other works
touching on various of the later crusades and Byzantium are D. Geanakoplos,
Emperor Michael Palaeologus and the West 1258—1282 (Cambridge, Mass.,
1959); U. Bosch, Kaiser Andronikos III. Palaiologos (Amsterdam, 1965); and
E. Dade, Versuche zur Wiedererrichtung der lateinischen Herrschaft in Konstantinopel
im Rahmen der abendländischen Politik, 1261 bis etwa 1310 (Jena, 1938);
also G. Bratianu, "Notes sur le projet de mariage entre l'empereur Michel
IX Paléologue et Catherine de Courtenay 

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