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Zacour, N. P.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The impact of the Crusades on Europe

VII: The Ottoman Turks and the Crusades, 1329-1451,   pp. 222-275 PDF (24.1 MB)

Page 257

paign was apparently a move to discourage an attack on the rear of the Ottomans,
who were now concentrating their forces on Thessalonica, which had been under
blockade since the spring of 1422. But, to the disappointment of the Ottomans,
Thessalonica, the second city of the Byzantine empire, passed by agreement
under Venetian sovereignty on September 14, 1423. Since the city had been
under Ottoman rule from 1387 to 1402, and paid a tribute of 100,000 akcha
to the sultans while under the Byzantine rule thereafter, the Ottomans considered
the Venetian occupation a hostile act. The Venetian ambassador, Nicholas
Giorgio, sent to make an agreement, was arrested in the winter of 1424, and
the Venetian offer to pay a tribute of 1,500—2,000 ducats for the city
was rejected. An Ottoman army estimated to consist of five thousand men was
holding the city under siege. 
 The Venetian-Ottoman war for Thessalonica lasted seven years, with dangerous
implications for the Ottomans. While on the one hand the republic made several
diplomatic attempts to have the sultan recognize the Venetian occupation
of Thessalonica in return for some concessions and payment of tribute,'03
on the other hand it tried to instigate a crusade or form a regional coalition
against the Ottomans. A Venetian fleet under Peter Loredan was at Gallipoli
in June 1424, blocking the Straits to all Ottoman ships. 
 To divert Ottoman forces, Venice then encouraged Juneyd in the Smyrna area
to rise against Murad. The Ottoman sultan had difficult times in his war
against this energetic fighter, who attempted to raise the Karamanids and
other emirs in Anatolia against the Ottomans. Given this dangerous situation,
Murad had to sign a peace treaty with Byzantium (February 22, 1424) which
accepted payment of a yearly tribute of 300,000 akcha (about 10,000 gold
ducats) and the return of lands occupied since 1402 on the coasts of the
Marmara, Aegean, and Black Seas except the castles of Mesembria, Derkos,
and Zeitounion (Lamia). 
 In collaboration with Venice, Juneyd planned to send Ismail, an Ottoman
pretender, to Rumelia, but Murad again secured Genoese cooperation to blockade
Juneyd from the sea. Juneyd's elimination in 1425 deprived Venice of an efficient
ally. In the spring of 1425 the Ottoman-Venetian war flared up on the Thessalonica
front. The Venetians occupied Cassandra and Kavalla and at the same time
attempted to use a "false" Mustafa as a pretender to the throne. In 1426
the OtFor Turakhan's raid into the Morea see lorga, Notes et extraits, I,
497, and Peter Topping's account in volume III of the present work, p. 164;
cf. Setton, ibid., III, 269. 
103. See Setton, The Papacy, II, 22—26. 

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