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Zacour, N. P.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The impact of the Crusades on Europe
(1989)

VII: The Ottoman Turks and the Crusades, 1329-1451,   pp. 222-275 PDF (24.1 MB)


Page 256

256 A HISTORY OF THE CRUSADES VI 
cessful final assault on August 26, the sultan lifted the siege of Constantinople.
 The Ottoman threat had led Manuel II to seek closer relations with the west,
and in particular with pope Martin V (1417—1431). In response the pope
sent messages to various western rulers requesting aid to Byzantium, and
his legate, the Franciscan Anthony of Massa, arrived in Constantinople on
September 10, 1422, to negotiate church union, but these negotiations were
not fruitful. More practical results were expected from diplomatic contacts
with Venice and Hungary. 
 Since 1411 Sigismund, "emperor of the Romans and king of Hungary", had championed
the deliverance of Balkan Christians and Byzantium,98 and since 1416 Manuel
II had been trying to reconcile Hungary and Venice for the purpose of starting
a crusade against the Ottomans. In this effort, Manuel was joined by king
Vladislav II Jagiello of Poland (13 86-1434), who had received the Byzantine
ambassador Philanthropenos in August 1420.~~ 
 Actually, Venice shrewdly made the most of the crisis of 1421—1423.
In the wake of the Ottoman siege of Constantinople, the senate agreed to
strengthen the Byzantine fleet by ten galleys (October 1422). In the Morea,
Venetians sought to take over the remnants of the Frankish principalities'00
and threatened to join the Greeks in order to hold the Ottoman forces at
the newly constructed Hexamilion wall on the isthmus.'°' In the spring
of 1423 Murad was still threatening the Byzantine empire. Now free of challenges
from his rivals in Anatolia and his brother Mustafa (late January 1423) Murad
sent Turakhan, the powerful frontier beg in Thessaly, to invade the Morea
on May 22, 1423, and destroy the Hexamilion fortifications. 102 Turakhan's
cam 
p. 164; lorga, Notes et extraits, I, 324; idem, "Sur les deux Prétendants
Mustafa," Revue historique du sud-est européen, X (1933), 12—13.
 98. Barker, Manuel II, pp. 327—329, 369. 
99. Ibid., pp. 336—339. 
100. Setton, The Papacy, II (Philadelphia, 1978), 12—14. 
 101. Barker, Manuel II, pp. 310-314. 
 102. Ibid., p. 369, note 121; see especially "TarihI Takvtmler." Defeated
by the forces sent by Murad II under Mihal-oghlu, Murad's brother Mustafa
took refuge in Constantinople (September 30, 1422). With the emperor's support
he went to Selymbria (Silivri), apparently hoping for cooperation from dissidents
in Rumelia. But under the attack of the Rumelian forces, he retreated to
Koja-ili (the Nicomedia area) where he was recognized as sultan. Nicaea (Iznik)
opened its gates to him. Mustafa threatened Bursa, and seems to have established
his control over the greater part of Ottoman Anatolia. On the advice of his
tutor YOrgüj Pasha, Murad II set out from Adrianople and attacked Mustafa
in Nicaea in winter. Taken by surprise and betrayed by his tutor Ilyas, Mustafa
was captured and executed (February 20, 1423). Murad's forces had to fight
against the Jandarid and Karamanid forces during his action against Mustafa.


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