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Zacour, N. P.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The impact of the Crusades on Europe
(1989)

VII: The Ottoman Turks and the Crusades, 1329-1451,   pp. 222-275 PDF (24.1 MB)


Page 247

Ch. VII THE OTTOMAN TURKS AND THE CRUSADES, 1329-1451 247 
at Frenk-Yazusu, where the Serbian contingent fought on the left wing.59
Upon the return home of the Serbian contingent, which complained of harsh
treatment in the Ottoman army, Lazar renounced his allegiance to Murad and
tried to bring about a coalition of the subjected Balkan states against the
Ottomans. The defeat at Plochnik on August 27, 1388, of an Ottoman frontier
force under Kavala Shahin,6° who had invaded Bosnia in collaboration
with Balsha, lord of Scutari, encouraged tsar Shishman and despot Dobrotich,
the Bulgarian rulers, and Tvrtko I, ruler of Bosnia (1353—1391), to
form a coalition with Lazar. This was followed by an agreement between Sigismund,
king of Hungary, and Lazar, who accepted the obligations of vassalage as
under Louis 1.61 
 In order to secure his rear in his campaign against Serbia, Murad sent Au
Pasha Chandaril, the new grand vizir, against Shishman and Dobrotich in the
autumn of 1388; Au, at the head of the forces of Rumelia, made a swift raid
into Bulgaria, and in the spring of 1389, when Murad crossed the Dardanelles,
Ali continued operations in Danubian Bulgaria, where tsar Shishman had taken
refuge in Nicopolis. Tirnovo, the capital of Shishman, surrendered (but was
not occupied) and the tsar finally submitted in Nicopolis. Then Ali Pasha
joined the sultan's army near Philippopolis (Plovdiv; Filibe) and the whole
army marched in the direction of Kossovo-Polje. The Christian lords of Küstendil
(Konstantin) and Timok (Saraj) joined Murad's army. The Anatolian emirates,
including Karaman, had responded to his call and sent contingents for this
crucial confrontation between the forces of Islam and Christendom. 
 The Serbian army included contingents from Bosnia under Vlatko Vukovich
and from Croatia under ban John Horvath, as well as mercenaries or volunteers
comprising "Franks, Vlachs, Albanians, Hungarians, Czechs, and Bulgarians".
In the western Balkans (Ragusa, Albania, and Bosnia) cannon was known by
1380, and reliable Ottoman and Serbian sources attest to its use at the battle
of Kossovo in the summer of 1389.62 The Ottoman victory at Kossovo marks
the estab 
 59. A contemporary Ottoman source in Neshri, op. cit., p. 59, dates it as
the spring of 788/ 
1386. Another contemporary source, ' Aziz AstargbgdI, Bazm u Razm, ed. KöprUlü
(Istanbul, 1928), p. 313, is not clear here in its chronology; it contains
complementary details on Murad's conquests in Tekke. 
 60. Kavala Shahin is often confused with Lala Shahin, beglerbeg of Rumelia
under Murad I. 
 61. Huber, "Die Gefangennehmung der KOniginnen Elisabeth und Maria von Ungarn
und die Kampfe König Sigismunds gegen die Neapolitanische Partei und
die übrigen Reichsfeinde in den Jahren 1386—1395," Archiv für
Osterreichische Geschichte, LXVI (1885), 523; Jire&k, Geschichte der
Serben, II, 119. 
 62. See D. Petrovi~, "Fire-arms in the Balkans," in War, Technology and
Society in the Middle East, ed. vernon ~. Parry and Malcolm E. Yapp (London,
1975), pp. 164-172. 


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