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Zacour, N. P.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The impact of the Crusades on Europe
(1989)

VI: Social Evolution in Latin Greece,   pp. 175-221 PDF (18.9 MB)


Page 178

 178 A HISTORY OF THE CRUSADES 
quest was the extreme fragmentation of Romania after 1204, in marked contrast
to the earlier unity of Byzantium. To a large extent, this fragmentation
explains the diversity of the political and social regimes instituted by
the Latins, as well as the nature and orientation of the 
(Toronto, 1972), esp. pp. 123—127; see also the volumes edited on behalf
of the PC, Fontes, ser. 3: 
Vatican! (Vatican City, 1943—1960, and Rome, 1961 if.). 
 Until recently only moderate attention has been devoted to the social history
of Latin Greece. This chapter aims at reconstructing the dynamics of social
evolution resulting from the encounter of Latin conquerors and settlers with
the indigenous population, overwhelmingly Greek; for lack of space, small
minorities such as the Jews, the Slays, the Albanians, and the Armenians
have not been treated here. Besides, an attempt has been made to study feudalized
and nonfeudalized areas in a comparative framework. This method has enabled
us to trace Byzantine continuity in the social, legal, and institutional
spheres. With the help of material relevant to Latin Greece it has thus been
possible to supplement the available documentation on Byzantine Greece before
1204. This approach is illustrated in three recent studies by Jacoby, whose
views differ on many points from those of previous authors: "The Encounter
of Two Societies: Western Conquerors and Byzantines in the Peloponnesus after
the Fourth Crusade," American Historical Review, LXXVIII (1973), 873—906;
"Une Classe fiscale a Byzance et en Romanie latine: les inconnus du fisc,
éleuthères ou étrangers," Actes du XIVe Congrès
international des etudes byzantines, II (Bucharest, 1975), 139—152;
and "Les Etats latins en Romanie: Phénomènes sociaux et économiques
(1204-1350 environ)," XVe Congrès international d'études byzantines,
Rapports et co-rapports, I: Histoire, sect. 3 (Athens, 1976). The present
chapter relies heavily on these studies, all reprinted in Jacoby's Recherches
sur Ia Méditerranée orientale du XIIe au XVe siècle:
Peuples, sociétés, economies (London, 1979), as well as on
the same author's other studies already cited above; see also Jacoby's "Les
Gens de mer dans la marine de guerre vénitienne de Ia mer Egée
aux XIVe et XVe siècles," in Le Genti del mare Mediterraneo, ed. R.
Ragosta (= XVII Colloquio internazionale di storia marittima, Napoli, 1980)
(Naples, 1981), I, 169-200. On society in Byzantine Greece shortly before
the conquest and on Frankish Greece, see the studies by Jacoby just mentioned.
 Recent work on the Byzantine upper class in general is by Aleksandr P. Kazhdan,
Social'nyi sostav gospodstvujushchego kiassa VizantiiXl—XIIvv. (Moscow,
1974) [in Russian]; The Byzantine Aristocracy IX to XIII Centuries, ed. Michael
Angold (BAR International Series, 221; Oxford, 1984), and especially Angold,
"Archons and Dynasts: Local Aristocracies and the Cities of the Later Byzantine
Empire," ibid., pp. 236—253. On Byzantine Greece in particular see
Judith Herrin, "Realities of Byzantine Provincial Government: Hellas and
Peloponnesos, 1180-1205," Dumbarton Oaks Papers, XXIX (1975), 253-284. Antonio
Carile, "Sulla Pronoia nel Peloponneso bizantino anteriormente alla conquista
latina," Zbornik Radova, XVI (1975), 55—61, has contested the conclusions
of Jacoby on the pronoia. On Frankish Greece see also Longnon, Les Compagnons
de Villehardouin: Recherches sur les croisés de la quatrième
croisade (Geneva and Paris, 1978), a mine of information on many of the Frankish
conquerors and their family background; this work, however, requires additions
and corrections. See also Gherardo Ortalli, Da Canossa a Tebe: Vicende di
una famiglia feudale tra XII e XIII secolo (Padova, 1983). 
 On the class ethos of the Franks and the Greek feudatories in Morea see
Jacoby, "La Littérature française dans les états latins
de la Méditerranée orientale a l'epoque des croisades: 
Diffusion et creation," in Essor etfortune de la chanson de geste dans l'Europe
et l'Orient latin: 
Actes du IXe Congrès international de la Societe Rencevals pour l'étude
des épopées romanes (Padoue-Venise, 1982) (Modena, 1984), pp.
617-646, and idem, "Knightly Values and Class Consciousness in the Crusader
States of the Eastern Mediterranean," Mediterranean Historical Review, 1(1986),
158-186. On landholders and peasants see also Angeliki E. Laiou-Thomadakis,
Peasant Society in the Late Byzantine Empfre: a Social and Demographic Study
(Princeton, 1977), who refers to the pre-l204 period and Frankish Morea,
yet does not always offer convincing inter~ pretations, and Topping, "Le
Régime agraire dans le Péloponnèse latin au XIVe siècle,"
L'Hellén 


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