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Zacour, N. P.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The impact of the Crusades on Europe
(1989)

V: The Institutions of the Kingdom of Cyprus,   pp. 150-174 PDF (9.7 MB)


Page 170

 170 A HISTORY OF THE CRUSADES 
the Greek priests of his diocese, and he was the judge of the Greek laity
for all matters within the competence of the church's courts, which is to
say for the greater part of private law. He had to swear obedience (the oath
was carefully phrased, according to the compromise reached in 1260) to the
Latin bishop of the diocese, but it was rare that a Latin bishop ventured
to visit the person who was canonically his subordinate, as did the Dominican
B~rard, bishop of Limassol in 1295, who deposed bishop Matthew of Lefkara
as a "heretic".6° It is noteworthy that some bishops, like Leo of Soli,
did not hesitate to have recourse to Rome in order to strengthen their position.
In the three centuries between 1260 and 1570, incidents provoked in general
by excess of zeal on the part of some prelates, or of papal legates such
as Peter de Pleine Chassagne in 1310 or Peter Thomas in 1360, were relatively
rare; the two churches lived their parallel lives without interference. The
Latin church, however, seems to have feared seeing its faithful pass to the
Greek rite, and some measures were taken to prevent it. Meanwhile, the monarchy
worried about limiting the access of pariques to the priesthood, seeing this
as an indirect means of escaping their servile condition. 
 Among the Syrians,61 the Melkites (Syri) were grouped with the Greeks and
were placed under the same bishops. The Maronites, Nestorians, Jacobites,
Armenians, and Copts had their own churches, notably in Famagusta and Nicosia,
and their own ecclesiastical organization; they were probably not constrained
to perform an act of obedience to the Latin bishop of each diocese. However,
archbishop Elias summoned the heads of these communities to a provincial
synod in 1340, along with the Greek bishops, in order to obtain their adherence
to the canons that he promulgated; and, after the Council of Florence, representatives
of the pope came to demand their adherence to the church union which had
been proclaimed there. 
 The establishment of Latin monasticism was accomplished in stages. 
198, 219—226 (nos. 119—120, 132—133); Täutu, ed.,
Acta loannis XXII (1317—1334) (ibid., vH-2; 
1952), pp. 79—80 (no. 39). 
 60. Richard, Documents chypriotes, p. 74, notes 1, 2. Despite this deposition,
Matthew seems to have remained in office until his death (archbishop John
refused to carry out the sentence laid on him). He was then replaced by Olbianos,
abbot of the monastery of Asomatos, who asked Bérard to confirm his
election: K. Hatzipsaltis, "Eic ' rfiç icYropiaç tf~ç
i1cK2~oIaç ~cflç Kditpou," Kypriakai Spoudai, XXII (1958),
14-15 (for the oath taken to the Latin bishop, ibid., p. 18). Cf. also Darrouzès,
"Textes synodaux," pp. 11—12, 20, 23. On the jurisdiction of the Greek
bishop see Estienne de Lusignan, Description, p. 84. Greek bishoprics were
reduced in number from 14 to 4, after 1220, in order to ensure exact congruence
of Greek and Latin dioceses. 
 61. Richard, "Le Peuplement latin et syrien de Chypre." 


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