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Zacour, N. P.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The impact of the Crusades on Europe

IV: Financing the Crusades,   pp. 116-149 PDF (13.4 MB)

Page 128

New Temple at London. In this use of secular machinery, the English collection
was tantamount to a tax. Both kings reserved the right to send the money
to the Holy Land as they saw fit, and John ordered that it be given only
to Hospitallers, Templars, and crusaders of the lands where it was collected.
Philip in his ordinance specifically denied any right of distraint by the
papacy, and John protested an attempt by bishop Odo of Paris to collect the
fortieth in Normandy on papal authority. General taxation by the pope and
the princes acting together had fallen afoul of political jealousies, which
in another generation would prove fatal to this source of financial support
for the crusade.43 
 In the empire hardly an echo is heard of the Saladin Tithe on the departure
of Frederick Barbarossa for the Holy Land.44 The first general tax known
to have been levied in the empire was decreed by Philip of Swabia, who was
king of Germany but not emperor. In a great council of the realm held in
1207, Philip ordered a general "almsgiving" for the Holy Land to be paid
for five years. Freemen were asked to give as divine grace inspired them,
but in the country six pence should be paid on each plow and in the towns
two pence on each house. The collection may be called a tax on the non-noble
lower classes but not on the freemen or nobles. The bishops were made responsible
for the appointment of collectors, the nobles for enforcing the collection.
The king sent messengers to collect the whole and to use it for the Holy
Land.45 Since those were troubled times in the empire and Philip was killed
the next year, the universality and effectiveness of his tax are questionable.
 At the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215 Innocent III called upon princes and
towns to give financial aid to the Holy Land. In 1221, apparently in belated
response to this request, the newly crowned emperor Frederick II levied a
tax in his kingdom of Sicily for his planned crusade: from the clergy he
took a twentieth of their temporal income (the pope had already collected
a twentieth of ecclesiastical income) and from the laity a tenth, while the
merchants also paid a twentieth of their lucro of the preceding year.46 At
the same time a papal legate, 
 43. Henri F. Delaborde, "Apropos d'une rature dans un registre de Philippe-Auguste,"
Bibliothèque de l'Ecole des chartes, LXIV (1903), 310; Roger of Hoveden,
Chronica, IV, 164, 187189; Rotuli litterarumpatentium, 1201—1216, ed.
T. Duffus Hardy (London, 1835), p. 5; cf. Mitchell, Taxation, pp. 131-133.
 44. Cartellieri, Philipp IL August, II, 73—74. Gregory VIII in 1187
granted an indulgence to the citizens of Lucca, not crusaders, who gave a
fortieth in aid of the Holy Land: Regesta Honorii papae III, ed. Pietro Pressutti
(2 vols., Rome, 1888-1895), no. 900. 
45. MGH, Legum, II, 213-214. 
 46. Richard of San Germano, Chronica, pp. 95, 97—98. 

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