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Baldwin, M. W. (ed.) / The first hundred years

XV: The Second Crusade,   pp. 463-512 PDF (20.6 MB)

Page 500

the journey. Louis and his magnates must have feared that the army would
break up in disorder as the Germans had on the road between Dorylaeum and
Nicaea. Apparently there was no serious talk of retreat, since they had found
little protection and few supplies at Laodicea. The French continued doggedly
towards Adalia as best they could. At this time the Templars, who had had
more experience of this sort of warfare in west and east than the other knights,
stood out because of their ability to look after their own equipment and
protect the people around them; and so by common consent it was agreed that
the army should form a sort of fraternity with the Templars during the emergency,
all taking an oath that they would not flee the field and that they would
obey in every respect the officers assigned them. The knights were divided
into groups of fifty and each group put under the com mand of Gilbert the
Templar or one of his associates. They had to learn to endure Turkish attacks
without being drawn away in fruitless pursuit, to attack only when ordered,
and to return from pursuit at once when the signal was given. Also they were
taught to maintain an order of march in which each man kept the position
given him. The archers on foot were drawn up at the rear of the army to combat
the Turkish bowmen; and nobles who had lost or sold their equipment on the
journey were included in this group. 
 The new system worked well. The crusaders managed to rout enemy attacks
four times or so in the days that followed and to go ahead in an orderly
fashion with forces intact. Since the. Turks and Greeks had burned the stores
of food and destroyed the pasturage and crops in the fields by allowing flocks
and cattle to graze ahead of the advancing army, many of the horses succumbed
and many packs, tents, clothing, arms, etc. had to be abandoned and destroyed.
The army subsisted on horse-meat and bread baked in the ashes of the campfires.
At last they arrived at Adalia on January 20.31 
 As William of Tyre has pointed out, Adalia belonged to the Byzantine empire
but was so close to Moslem territory that it had had to establish a working
agreement with the Turks and so main tained a trade in necessary articles
with them.32 To this town Manuel had sent a messenger who forced the French
nobles to reconfirm 
 31 Odo, De pro/ectione, VI, 108-128; Nicetas, Historia, I, 6; letter of
Louis to Suger (RHGF, XV), p. 496; William of Tyre, History, XVI, 24—26;
Kugler, Studien, pp. i7off.; 
c. H. Walker, "Eleanor and the Disaster at Cadmos Mountain," 1IHR, LV (1949—1950),
857—861. Chalandon, Les Comne'ne, pp. 310—311, thinks the country
may have been stripped by the survivors from Otto of Freising's army. For
a description of similar methods of fighting on other occasions, see William
of Tyre, History, XVI, 12. 
32 William of Tyre, History, XVI, 27. 

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