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Baldwin, M. W. (ed.) / The first hundred years
(1969)

XV: The Second Crusade,   pp. 463-512 PDF (20.6 MB)


Page 464

464 A HISTORY OF THE CRUSADES I 
First Crusade without changing its essential character. Eugenius's bull with
its careful attention to the status and privileges of the crusaders; the
insistence on authorized preachers; the reliance on experienced military
leaders; the desire for the orderly departure of the crusade through territories
whose rulers had been consulted 
 Chief among the Arabic sources generally accessible are: Ibn-al- Qalänisi,
Dhail ta'rrkh Dimashq (extracts tr. I-I. A. R. Gibb, The Damascus Chronicle
of the Crusades, London, 1932; also ed. H. F. Amedroz [Leyden, 1908]); Ibn-al-Athir,
Al-kämil fi-t-tcfrikh (extracts in RHC, Or., I, 187—744), and
Ta'rikh ad-daulab al-atabakiyah mulük al-Mausil (RHC, Or., II, part
z); Usamah Ibn-Munqidh, Kitäb al-z'tibãr (tr. P. K. Hitti, An
Arab-Syrian Gentleman ... in the Period of the Crusades, Records of Civilization,
New York, 1929); other editions by H. Derenbourg (Paris, 1889), and G. R.
Potter (London, 1929); Kamãl-ad-Diu, Zubdat al-f~alab /1 ia'rikh IIalab
(extracts in RHC, Or., III, 577—690, and tr. E. Blochet, ROL, Ill—VT,
1895 to 1898); abü-Shamah, Kitôb ar-raudatain (RHC, Or., IV—V).
 Syrian and Armenian chronicles include that of Matthew of Edessa, continued
by Gregory the Presbyter (RHC, Doc. Arm. I); Michael the Syrian, Chronique
(ed. J.-B. Chabot, 4 vols., Paris, 1899—1910); Bar-Hebraeus, Gregory
abü-l-Faraj, Chronography (tr. E. A. Wallis Budge, London, 1932); St.
Nerses Schnorhali, Elegy on the Taking of Edessa (RHC, Doc. Arm. I). See
also W. R. Taylor, "A New Syriac Fragment dealing with Incidents in the Second
Crusade," Annual of the American School of Oriental Research, XI (1929—1930),
120—131; A. S. Tritton and H. A. R. Gibb, "The First and Second Crusades
from an Anonymous Syriac Chronicle," Journal o/the Royal Asiatic Society,
1933, pp. 69—10 I, 273—305; J.-B. Chabot, "Une Episode de l'histoire
des croisades," Mélanges Schlumberger (2 vols., Paris, 1924), I, 169—179.
Important recent comment on oriental literature of the period can be found
in C. Cahen, La Syrie du nord (cited below), pp. 33—100, and M. Bertsch,
The Attitude of Twelfth Century Arabic Historians towards the Crusades (University
of Michigan, dissertation, Ann Arbor, 1950). 
 The classic studies on the Second Crusade remain those of B. Kugler, Studien
zur Geschichie des zweiten Kreuzzuges (Stuttgart, i866), and the modifications
and additions found in his Analekten zur Geschichte des zweiten Kreuzzuges
(Tubingen, 1878), and Neue Analekten (Tubingen, 1883). These supersede earlier
treatments. While no entire volume since Kugler's has been devoted to the
Second Crusade, important later contributions to various aspects of the subject
have been made by W. Giesebrecht, Geschichte der deutschen Kaiserzeit, IV
(2nd ed., Leipzig, 1877); H. von Kap-Herr, Die abendländische Politik
Kaiser Manuels (Strassburg, 1881); C. Neumann, Bernhard von Clairvaux und
die Anfange des zweiten Kreuzzuges (Heidelberg, i88z); W. Bernhardi, Konrad
III (Leipzig, 1883), a very full study; G. Hüffner, "Die Anfange des
zweiten Kreuzzuges," Historisches Jahrbuch VIII (1887), 39 1—429, a
satisfactory summary and resolution of many problems; E. Vacandard, "Saint
Bernard et la seconde croisade," Revue des questions historiques, XXXVIII
(i88~), 398—457, and Vie de Saint Bernard, vol. II (Paris, 1895); F.
Chalandon, Histoire de la domination normande en Italie et en Sicile, vol.
II (Paris, 1907); and Jean II Comne'ne (1118—1143) et Manuel Comnine
(1143—1180) (Paris, 1912); P. Rassow, "Die Kanzlei Bernhards von Clairvaux,"
Studien und Mitteilungen zur Geschichte des Benediktinerordens und seiner
Zweige, new series, III (' ~i3); H. Cosack, "Konrads III Entschluss zum Kreuzzug,"
MJOG, XXXV (1914), 278—296; E. Caspar, "Die Kreuzzugsbullen Eugens
III," Neues Archiv, XLV (1924), 285—300; P. Pfeiffer, "Die Cistercienser
und der zweite Kreuzzug," Cistercienser Chronik, XLVII (i~~~); H. Gleber,
Papst Eugen III (Jena, 1936); V. Cramer, "Kreuzpredigt und Kreuzzugsgedanke
von Bernhard von Clairvaux," Palästina-He/te des deutschen Vereins vom
Heiligen Land, XVII—XX (i~3~); C. Cahen, La Syrie du nord a l'ipoque
des croisades (Paris, 1940); A. Cartellieri, Der Vorrang des Papsttums zur
Zeit der ersten Kreuzzüge (Munich, I 941); H. Conrad, "Gottesfrieden
und Heeresverfassung in der Zeit der Kreuzzuge," Zeitschrift der Savigny-Stiftung
für Rechtsgeschichte, Germanistische Abteilung, LXI ~ 71—126;
J. Richard, Le Comti de Tripoli sous la dynastie toulousaine (1102—1187)
(Paris, 1945); 5. Runciman, History of the Crusades, vol. II (Cambridge,
1952); G. Constable, "The Second Crusade as Seen by Contemporaries," Traditio,
IX (1953), which reexamines the western sources with particular reference
to the scope of the crusade, the role of the papacy, and the explanations
advanced for the failure of the expedition; and E. Willems, "Citeaux Ct la
seconde croisade," in Revue d'histoire ecclésiastique, XLIX (1954),
i i6—i~,, where the activities of St. Bernard are explored in some
detail. 


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