Baldwin, M. W. (ed.) / The first hundred years
II: Conflict in the Mediterranean Before the First Crusade, pp. -
Ch. II THE PILGRIMAGES TO PALESTINE 71 at Jerusalem. St. Rhadegund, ex-queen of Clothar the Frank, employed agents who brought her a rich haul, including a fragment of the Cross, acquired at Constantinople, and the finger of St. Mamas of Cappadocia, several of whose other bones were obtained by pilgrims from Langres. Women were particularly zealous in this pursuit. It was a lady from Guienne who returned home with a phial containing the blood of St. John the Baptist, and a lady from Maurienne who brought back his thumb.'~ Throughout the sixth century pilgrims continued to visit the east in great numbers, and several Itineraries were written to help them on their way, such as those of the travelers Theodosius and Antoninus Martyr. There were still constant trade connections with the east; and it was not difficult for a pilgrim to obtain a passage in a merchant-ship, probably Syrian-owned, traveling between Provence or Visigothic Spain and the ports of Syria and Egypt.16 With the Arab conquest of Syria and Egypt, the pilgrimtraffic was necessarily interrupted. For some centuries there was no sea-borne trade between the Moslem east and the Christian west. Pirates infested Mediterranean waters. The new rulers of Palestine were suspicious of strangers; and in any case the journey was increasingly expensive, and wealth in the west was declining. But intercourse was not entirely broken off; and the western church still thought with sympathy and longing of the holy places. Many of the popes were still of oriental origin and had oriental connections. In 652 pope Martin I was accused of friendly dealings with the Moslems and acquitted himself by showing that his motive was to be able to send alms to Palestine.17 While most pilgrims now contented themselves with journeys to nearer shrines, such as Rome, there were still some hardy enough to brave the perils of the east. In 670 the Frankish bishop, Arculf, set oUt on travels that brought him to Egypt, Syria, and Palestine and home by Constantinople, but he was away for many years and suffered many hardships.18 We hear of other pilgrims of the time, such as the Picard, Vuiphy of Rue, and the Burgundians, Bercaire and Waimer of Montier~en_Der.19 15 For the question of relics see H. Delehaye, Les Origines de culte des martyres (znd ed., Brussels, 1938), pp. 73—91; Jean Ebersolt, Orient et occident (Paris and Brussels, 5928), I, 32—39. 16 The itineraries of Theodosius and Antoninus are given in Itinera Hierosolymitana (ed. Tobler and Molinier, Société de l'orient 1at~n, I, Geneva, i88o), p. 2. 17 Pope Martin I, Ep. XV, in FL LXXXVII, 199—zoo, letter to Theodore. 18 Arculf's journey was described by his disciple, Adamnan, De locis sanctis, tr. J. R. Macpherson (FFTS, III). 19 Vita S. Wlphagii (Acta sanctorUm, Jun. tom. II, June 7), pp. 30—35; Miracula S. Bercharii (Acta sanctorum ordinis S. Benedicti, saec. II), p. 849.
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