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Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The art and architecture of the crusader states
(1977)

V: The Arts in Cyprus,   pp. 165-207 PDF (15.7 MB)


Page 202

 202 A HISTORY OF THE CRUSADES IV 
lower series of rooms at courtyard level. Basement cisterns and some traces
of an external wooden gallery overlooking the courtyard and providing access
to the upper chambers have also survived. The arrangements within the north
fighting galleries were evidently similar. At the northeast angle the fighting
galleries meet in a horseshoe tower of two stories, where a development may
be noted from the simple embrasures of the lower level (shown on the plan,
fig. 10) to the recessed form of those above. The latter form recurs in the
single remaining gallery of the south curtain, which was erected well outside
the line of the outer Byzantine curtain and the towers attached to it. The
Venetian tower constructed at the southeast angle has obscured the earlier
arrangements at this point, but they evidently included access to the sea
through a gate in the east curtain, the landward approach to the foreshore
being blocked by a wall running out to a terminal tower washed by the sea.
In the lowest level of the Venetian southwest bastion the third angle of
the Frankish fortress can be seen, at the point of junction of the present
south and west curtains, without any surviving trace of a corner tower. The
position of this angle suggests that on the west the Frankish curtain coincided
with the outer Byzantine wall, and that the present west wall, of Venetian
date, in turn followed the Frankish line. The latter reappears at the north
end where it sheathes the Byzantine salient towards the harbor, but at no
point have its fighting galleries survived. 
 The Frankish entrance from the town was probably at the point in the west
wall where the present one was constructed by the Venetians. It would have
led into an outer court or barbican, with the chapel of St. George standing
at its northern end. Projecting into the barbican from the inner Byzantine
west wall, a gatehouse encloses the L-shaped entrance to the main courtyard,
constructed in the massive masonry of the later Frankish style. The southern
end of the barbican is now filled by the ramp which the Venetians constructed
to reach their ramparts; originally it extended as a level approach to the
southwest corner of the castle where a wide gateway, still almost intact,
led to the spaces between the outer Byzantine and the Frankish south curtains,
from which the south fighting gallery was reached. At the north end the barbican
was commanded by a strong rectangular tower encasing the original northwest
angle tower and itself buttressed by later masonry. This tower stands forward
from the main line of the north curtain; at the angle where the latter is
bent northward to close with it a postern leads to the northern foreshore.
Here traces of a small protecting barbican are to be seen, and, on the main
curtain, the corbels of a 


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