Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The art and architecture of the crusader states
I: Life Among the Europeans in Palestine and Syria in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries, pp. 3-35
24 A HISTORY OF THE CRUSADES IV Ibn-Jubair describes a Frankish wedding and the bride very prettily. The guests, both men and women, formed two lines while entertained by trumpet and flute music as they waited. The bride appeared, supported on each side by male relatives, in a dress which had a train of golden silk. On her hair and across her breast she also had a net of woven gold, held on the head by a gold diadem. She walked "like a dove, or. . . a wisp of cloud." The men walked before her and the women came after. The musicians led the procession to the groom's house, where there was feasting which lasted all day. 162 Philip of Novara had described such a feast, doubtless of more prominent people, that continued for a fortnight, varied by tourneying, dancing, and the wearing of fine clothes. 163 The betrothal requirements are recorded in the Assises: the future groom swears "on the saints" that he has no living wife and no other fiancee, and two companions take the same oath for him; the woman swears that she has no living husband; the date for the solemnization of the marriage is then set. Banns were cried for three days at the first mass. 164 In such a land of violence, where fighting men died daily, there were a multitude of young widows; a widow could take le ten de plor, so that for a whole year she was not obliged to marry a new husband. 165 We can say in general that the routine of men in the crusader states did not vary greatly from that to which they were accustomed at home. 166 One rose early, not long after dawn (sometimes before), and doubtless began the day with some liquid refreshment. Some individuals then went to mass, seldom receiving the Eucharist more than once a year except on a special occasion. Several hours of work could then be put in, followed by a little leisure before the principal meal at the end of the morning. This meal, usually about an hour in length, was followed by a siesta, when the individual was quiet or actually took a nap. Then came relevee and the afternoon work period, followed by supper at vespers, with entertainment, and after that might come study or reading. This kind of routine was not very exacting. Hunting, buying in the markets, even writing, provided variation. When there was fighting, or when a journey had to be made, these necessities became the chief occupation of the day. Even 162. Ibn-Jubair, pp. 320-321: "this alluring sight, from the seducement of which God preserve us." 163. Philip of Novara, p. 3. 164. "Assises de Jerusalem," II, 111-112. 165. William of Tyre, p. 1029. 166. See Holmes, Daily Living, for further information on daily routine.
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