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United States. Office of Indian Affairs / Annual report of the commissioner of Indian affairs, for the year 1905
Part I ([1905])

Reports concerning Indians in North Dakota,   pp. 278-291 PDF (7.0 MB)

Page 287

possible, show the total increase in the number of stock on the reservation,
as well as the actual increase: 
Stock now on reservation belonging to Indians- -....   19,579 
Sold to Government during the year----------------------1,351 
Butchered by Indians for subsistence   -      -        1,570 
Loss on account of storm during the winter (estimated)   200 
Sold to other than the Government during the year (esti-  . 
Total-   -    -    ---------                  23,600 
Reported by actual count, last report-  ---    --     18,058 
Total increase during year-------------------------5,542 
Net increase over last year_                     1, 521 
Restraint from useless butchering of stock by Indians and the ardent work
of the inspector of live stock and farmers will greatly aid in the increase
the number of stock on the reservation. The number of horses has increased
during the last year, notwithstanding the fact that the Indians are disposing
of them wherever they can in trade for cattle or for subsistence. During
last spring storms there was a proportional greater loss of horses than cattle.
Other domestic animals have also increased, and in the matter of domestic
fowls I find an increase since the last report of nearly 100 per cent, which,
taken as a whole, bespeaks a great step toward domestic economy. 
Health and sanitation.-No contagious diseases have appeared on the.reser-
vation during the fiscal year, and the health must be considered good, barring
that dreaded disease, tuberculosis, which exists to a great extent, and from
which cause a great many deaths occur, the Indians being constantly 
reminded of the importance of ventilating their houses and to curtail the
constant traveling during the colder part of the year, either of which pro-
motes the disease and makes the death rate higher. The physicians and 
female industrial teachers are doing all possible to improve the sanitation
and promote health among the Indians, but the older Indians are rather averse
to accepting much advice from either. 
Mode of living.-The Indians are, as far as can be expected, endeavoring 
to adopt the ways of respectable white men in habitations and mode of living.
While tents and tepees are used in the hot summer months, substantial log
and frame houses are occupied during the colder seasons. The female indus-
trial teachers and housekeepers are endeavoring to the best of their ability
teach the Indians the observance of better sanitary rules in preparing food,
cleanliness, and ventilation. 
Crimes and punishment.-No one has been convicted of any crimes and no 
punishments inflicted, except by the agent and the court of Indian offenses
for misdemeanors. 
Indian police and judges.-The Indian judges and, I think, with a few excep-
tions, the Indian police have been faithful and loyal and executed the work
intrusted and the orders given them in a painstaking manner and to the best
of their ability. 
Education.-There are three boarding schools and five day schools supported
by the Government and one mission school supported entirely by the Protestant
Episcopal Church. 
Agency boarding school.-Under the watchful care and administrative ability
of Ewald C. Witzleben, superintendent, this school is making permanent 
strides along educational lines. The year just ended has been equally as
ful as the years past. Considering the age of the buildings, they are in
kept condition, but not at all modern. The kerosene lamp is still used for
lighting the schoolrooms. The ceilings in the building are rather low, and
much-needed repairs will, in a short time, have to be made to make this 
school fairly up to date. Some needed repairs and additions to the outbuild-
ings have been made during the past year and more will be needed. 
Agricultural Boarding SchooL.-This school has just passed a very successful
year. Great improvements have been made during the past year on the school
buildings proper, and those buildings must now be considered modern in every
way. The school is under the efficient direction of Martin Kenel, superintendent,
who is ever Watchful for the best welfare of the pupils intrusted to his
Lack of sufficient outbuildings is now a feature to be remedied to care sufficiently

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