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Wolff, R. L.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The later Crusades, 1189-1311

XVIII: The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia,   pp. 630-659 PDF (12.0 MB)

Page 631

minor rulers whose lands had been seized by the Byzantine em perors and who
had been granted, in return, domains in Cappadocia and Asia Minor. A second
wave followed the conquest of Armenia by the Selchükid Turks and the
disaster of Manzikert in 1071. 1 It is probable that by far the greater number
of those who fled the Turkish domination sought refuge in the cities and
regions of the Taurus, the Anti-Taurus, and northern Syria held by Armenian
chieftains, where they were joined towards the end of the century by some
Armenians of Cappadocia who moved southward after the death of the last Armenian
kings. A considerable number still remained, however, north of the Taurus;
according to the Gesta when the crusaders approached Caesarea of Cappadocia
(Kayseri) they entered "the country of the Armenians", and when they reached
Comana and Coxon they were welcomed by the Armenian population of these cities.
 In order to secure the defense of their eastern borders, the Byzantine emperors
had appointed some Armenians as governors of important cities, entrusted
them with the command of their armies, or ceded large tracts of land to them.
But gradually, taking advantage of the unsettled conditions of these outer
regions and the weakening of the central authority, some of these chieftains
had broken the ties that bound them to the empire. At the time of the 
Chronique de Damas, Paris, 1949); Abu-Shãmah, Kitab ar-raudatain (RHC,
Or., IV-V); 
Kamal-ad-Din, Zubdat al-halab ft ta'rtkh Halab (tr. E. Blochet, "Histoire
d'Alep," ROL, 
IlI—VI, 1895—1898); al-Maqrizi, Al-mawa'iz wa-l-i ' tibar ft
dhikr al-khitat wa-l-athar (tr. 
E. M. Quatremère, Histoire des sultans mamlouks de i'Egypte, 2 vols.,
Paris, 1837—1845); and 
al-Maqrizi, Akhbãr Misr (tr. E. Blochet, Histoire d'Egypte, Paris,
1908). In Persian, there is 
Ibn-Bibi, Saljuq-nameh (ed. Th. Houtsma, Leyden, 1902; extracts tr. C. Schéfer,
Paris, 1889). 
There is a German translation of Ibn-BIbI by H. W. Duda, Die Seitschukengeschichte
Ibn Bibi, Copenhagen, 1959. 
 The Byzantine and western writers include: Anna Comnena, Alexiad (ed. B.
Leib, 3 vols., Paris, 1937—1945); Cedrenus-Skylitzes, Historiarum compendium,
vol. II (CSHB, Bonn, 1839); Nicetas Choniates, Historia (CSHB, Bonn, 1835);
and William of Tyre, Historia rerum in partibus transmarinis gestarum, and
French translation, L'Estoire de Eracles empereur (RHC, 0cc., I). 
 Among the principal secondary sources which should be consulted in addition
to the general histories of the crusades are the following: Leonce M. Alishan,
Leon le Magnifique, premier roi de Sissouan ou de l'Armino-Cilicie (Venice,
1 888); Leonce Alishan, Sissouan ou I'Arméno-Ciicie (Venice, 1899);
Claude Cahen, La Syrie du nord a l'epoque des croisades et la principaute
franque d'Antioche (Paris, 1940); F. Chalandon, Les Comnène: Jean
II Comnène et Manuel Comnène (Paris, 1913); N. Iorga, Breve
histoire de la Petite Arménie (Paris, 1930); J. Laurent, "Les Croisés
et l'Arménie," Handes Amsorya, XLI (1927), 885—906; G. G. Mikac
lian, Istoriya kiiikiiskogo armyanskogo gosudarstvo (Erevan, 1952); J. de
Morgan, Histoire du peuple arménien (Nancy-Paris, 1919); Malachia
Ormanian, Azkabadoum (in Armenian), vols. 
I and II (Constantinople, 19 12—1914); M. Tchamtchian, History of the
Armenians (in Ar menian; 3 vols., Venice, 1784—1786); and Fr. Tournebize,
Histoire politique et religieuse de l'Arménie (Paris, n.d.). 
 1 For the SeichUkid victory at Manzikert, see volume I of the present work,
chapter V, pp. 148—150; for the Armenian princelings in 1097, see ibid.,
chapter IX, pp. 299—301. 

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