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Wolff, R. L.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The later Crusades, 1189-1311
(1969)

III: The Crusades of Frederick Barbarossa and Henry VI,   pp. 86-122 PDF (14.1 MB)


Page 107

Ch. III THE CRUSADES OF FREDERICK I AND HENRY VI 107 
excess of pillage and murder.' Obviously, there was some cause for Byzantine
fear of the German advance toward Constantinople. 
 At Philippopolis and Adrianople, 'under cover of the freedom necessary to
bring together provisions, there crept into almost everybody the general
abuse of pillaging more than the necessary things." 20 The prolonged
stay at Philippopolis and Adrianople further relaxed the discipline of the
army. 'Many lacked that good faith and harmony which formerly flourished
in the army of Christ', and steps had to be taken to correct the excessive
fraternization with native women. 'For, to be specific, they publicly stripped
both the men and the women, tied their hands behind their backs, tied a rope
about their loins, and led them around through the whole city. . . . They
finally in the very cold of winter immersed them several times in the river
which flows by, and dismissed them with proper scoffing and mockery.'21 When
the Germans left Philippopolis for Adrianople, 'to show their hatred of the
Greeks, they utterly destroyed that city by fire. Some of them, moreover,
on the march forward turned aside to the city of Berrhoea, and after collecting
all the booty they wanted, gave it to the avenging flames.' 
 While at Adrianople Frederick attempted through duke Berthold to renew diplomatic
contact with Stephen Nemanya, 'about sending an army to help us if perchance
war should be declared against Constantinople'. When the duke finally arrived
in Adrianople on January 21, 1190, he presented to Frederick an embassy of
the 'grand zupan", and was charged with carrying the negotiations with
the Serbs to completion. Meanwhile, too, the Viach Peter 'urgently requested
Frederick to make him emperor . . . and to place on his head the imperial
crown of the kingdom of Greece. He steadfastly asserted that, at the beginning
of spring, he would send forty thousand Vlachs and Kumans . . . against Constantinople.
The emperor preferred to hold their offer in reserve while maintaining Peter's
good will." 22 These negotiations and the continuance of the war led
to the further exchange of envoys between Frederick and Isaac Angelus on
the basis of the agreement at Nuremberg, and the furnishing of select hostages
by the Byzantines, for 'the Greek emperor saw his land and cities unable
to resist, and further more laid waste by our men.' By December 24 negotiations
had proceeded to the point where definite terms were being discussed. But
at the last moment, the Byzantine envoys, with what the Germans regarded
as 'their usual shifting and inconstancy, shrank from the promised conditions
and rejected the terms of certain 
 20 Ibid., pp. 59-60. 21 Ibid., p. 6o, lines 12-20. 22 Ibid., p. 58, lines
12-20. 


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