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Wolff, R. L.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The later Crusades, 1189-1311
(1969)

II: The Third Crusade: Richard the Lionhearted and Philip Augustus,   pp. 44-85 PDF (16.5 MB)


Page 85

Ch. II THE THIRD CRUSADE: RICHARD AND PHILIP 85  
 Soon after this little victory, Richard fell desperately ill. At about the
same time duke Hugh of Burgundy died at Acre. Although the news of the duke's
death is said to have cheered Richard so much that he began to recover, he
realized that the crusade had spent its force. On September 2, a truce for
three years was signed by the representatives of the king and the sultan.
The Christians were to hold a narrow strip along the coast from Tyre to Jaffa.
Ascalon was to have its fortifications demolished before it was turned over
to the sultan. Both Christians and Moslems were to have free passage through
the whole of Palestine. If the prince of Antioch and the count of Tripoli
desired, they were to be included in the treaty. Once peace was concluded,
Richard moved north along the coast to nurse his health in some more salubrious
spot than death-ridden Jaffa. In order to prevent the French crusaders from
using the truce to visit Jerusalem, the king arranged with Saladin to permit
the passage only of pilgrims bearing his pass. A number of English pilgrims
headed by bishop Hubert of Salisbury made visits to the holy city and its
shrines. On October 9, 1192, king Richard set sail from Acre. The Third Crusade
was ended.67 
 In considering the accomplishments of the Third Crusade, it is necessary
to distinguish between the crusade as a whole and the expedition led by Richard
and Philip Augustus. Without the aid of the crusaders who had arrived in
the autumn of 1189 Guy of Lusignan's attack on Acre would have been a futile
gesture, and it was probably the coming of count Henry of Champagne that
made the eventual capture of the city certain. It seems fairly clear that
Acre would have fallen without the aid of the French and English kings. In
all probability, however, the conquest of the coastal region from Acre to
Jaffa could not have been accomplished without the troops of Richard and
the duke of Burgundy. In short, the Third Crusade reestablished the kingdom
of Jerusalem as a political and military power. Actually it did more - it
protected the remnants of the kingdom from Saladin while he was at the height
of his power. Before the truce was over, the great sultan was dead, and his
heirs were squabbling over his inheritance. Thus the mere presence of Richard
and his host through 1191 and 1192 may well have prevented Saladin from reaping
the full fruits of his victory at Hattin. 
67 Hoveden, III, 184-185; Diceto, II, 104-105; Bernard le Trésorier,
pp. 292-293; Eracles, pp. 198-199; Itinerarium, pp. 425-440; Estoire, pp.
426-443; Devizes, pp. 444, 449. 


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