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Wolff, R. L.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The later Crusades, 1189-1311
(1969)

II: The Third Crusade: Richard the Lionhearted and Philip Augustus,   pp. 44-85 PDF (16.5 MB)


Page 47

Ch. II THE THIRD CRUSADE: RICHARD AND PHILIP 47 
for the sultan to buy the towns by allowing the inhabitants to go free. Every
such displaced person made the food problem more serious in the remaining
Christian strongholds. 
 Conrad, the officials of the Temple and Hospital who had not been captured
at Hattin, and the prelates of the kingdom promptly sent appeals for aid
to the princes and lords of western Europe. According to a Moslem writer,
Conrad sought to arouse crusading enthusiasm by circulating a picture of
a Turkish horseman allowing his mount to urinate on the Holy Sepulcher.3
At some time during the autumn of 1187 Conrad reinforced his letters by dispatching
to the west Joscius, archbishop of Tyre, the successor to William, the historian.
The archbishop's first stop was Sicily, where he found a sympathetic listener
in king William II. Had it not been for king William, the slow-moving monarchs
of the west might well have found no kingdom of Jerusalem to succor. In the
spring and summer of 1188 a Sicilian fleet commanded by the famous admiral
Margarit saved Tripoli from capture and reinforced and provisioned Antioch
and Tyre.4 Had William II survived, the Sicilian forces would probably have
played an important part in the Third Crusade, but he died in 1189, and a
disputed succession kept Sicilian energies fully occupied until 1194. 
 On January 22, 1189, archbishop Joscius found Henry II of England, Philip
II Augustus of France, Philip of Alsace, count of Flanders, and many lords
and prelates of the two realms engaged in a conference on the Norman frontier.
So eloquent was his appeal for aid for the Holy Land that both kings, the
count of Flanders, and many other lords took the cross, and agreed to begin
preparations for a crusade. The French were to wear red crosses, the English
white crosses, and the Flemish green crosses. King Henry soon proceeded to
Le Mans, where he ordered the levying of the "Saladin tithe", a
tax of a tenth on everyone's income and movable property, to raise money
for the crusade. While archbishop Baldwin of Canterbury and other prelates
preached the crusade, Henry vigorously collected the tax throughout his lands.
Henry also dispatched letters to the Holy Roman emperor, Frederick I Barbarossa,
to king Bela III of Hungary, and to the Byzantine emperor, Isaac Angelus,
announcing that he intended to go to the relief of the kingdom of Jerusalem
and asking free passage through their realms.5 But while Henry was industriously
preparing for his 
 3 aha'-ad-Din, p. 207; Diceto, II, 60-62. 
 4 Eracles, pp. 111-112, 114, 119-120; Bernard le Trésorier, pp. 244,
247, 251; Itinerarium, p. 27. On the Sicilian admiral Margarit, see above,
chapter I, pp. 37-40.   
 5 Gesta, II, 29-32; Diceto, II, 51-54. 


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