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Wolff, R. L.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The later Crusades, 1189-1311

I: The Norman Kingdom of Sicily and the Crusades,   pp. 2-43 PDF (16.9 MB)

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there was much in the geography, resources, and traditions of the Norman
kingdom of Sicily in the twelfth century to recommend it as a valuable bulwark
of the crusades. Armies bound for Constantinople could use its Adriatic ports
for the passage to Durazzo (Dyrrachium) or Avlona, whence they could take
the Via Egnatia to 
 On the sources for the history of the Normans in Italy, see F. Chalandon,
Histoire de la domination normande en Italic et en Sicile (a vols., Paris,
1907), I, introduction. A more recent survey may be found in P. Kehr, Italia
Pontificia, VIII (Berlin, 1935), I-5. The following are the most important
general accounts of southern Italy in the Norman period: Falco of Benevento,
Chronicon de rebus aetate sua gestis (ed. G. Del Re, Cronisti e scrittori,
I [Naples, 1845], 16 1-252; for other editions, see Chalandon, Domination
normande, I, xli-xlvi; on Falco, the only native historian with an outright
hostility to the Norman dynasty, see E. Gervasio, "Falcone Beneventano
e la sua cronica," Bolletino dell' Istituto Storico Italiano, LIV 1-128);
Alexander of Telese, De rebus gestis Rogerii Siciliae regis (ed. G. Del Re,
Cronisti e scrittori, I, 85-146); Hugo Falcandus, Liber de regno Siciliae
(ed. G. B. Siragusa, FSI, XXII [Rome, 1897]; on Falco of Benevento, Alexander
of Telese, and Hugo Falcandus, see A. Pagano, Studi di letteratura latina
medievale [Nicotera, 1931]; and on the possibility that Hugo was the admiral
Eugenius, see E. Jamison, Admiral Eugenius of Sicily . . . and the Authorship
of. . . "Historia Hugonis Falcandi Siculi" [London, 1957], pp.
233-277; but compare review by Lynn White, Jr., in AHR, LXIII [1957-1958],
645-647); Romuald Guarna of Salerno, Chronicon (ed. C. A. Garufi, RISS, VII,
1914-1935); and Peter of Eboli, De rebus Siculis carmen (ed. E. Rota, RISS,
XXXI, 1904). Of the annalistic works written in southern Italy, the most
important are: Annales Cavenses and Annales Beneventani (MGH, SS., III);
Lupus Protospatarius Barensis, Rerum gestarum breve chronicon (MGH, SS.,
V); Petri Diaconi chronica monasterii Casinensis (MGH, SS., VII); Annales
Casinenses and Annales Ceccanenses (MGH, SS., XIX). Other sources will be
cited below. The Arabic sources relating to Sicily are collected and translated
by M. Amari, Biblioteca arabo-sicula (2 vols., Turin and Rome, 1880-1881),
hereafter referred to as BAS. 
 Works of comprehensive character, or dealing with background problems for
the whole period covered in this chapter, are: M. Amari, Storia dei musulmani
di Sicilia (and ed. revised by the author and ed. by C. A. Nallino, 3 vols.,
Catania, 1933-1939); Chalandon, Domination normande; C. H. Haskins, The Normans
in European History (Boston, 1915), chaps. VII, VIII; idem, "England
and Sicily in the Twelfth Century," English Historical Review, XXVI
(191 1), 43 3-447, 641-665; W. Cohn, Das Zeitalter der Normannen in Sizilien
(Bonn and Leipzig, 1920); J. B. Villars, Les Normands en Méditerranée
(Paris, 1951); idem, "I Normanni dalle origini," Archivio storico
siciliano, ser. 3, IV (1950-1951), 399-413; K. A. Kehr, "Die Belehnungen
der suditalienischen Normannenfursten durch die Papste (1059-1192),"
Abhandlungen der preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Phil.-hist. Kl.
(1934), no. I; Il Regno normanno (Conferenze tenute in Palermo per l'VIII
centenario deli' incoronazione di Ruggero a Re di Sicilia, Messina and Milan,
1932); C. Cahen, Le Régime 

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