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Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The fourteenth and fifteenth centuries

XII: The Spanish and Portuguese Reconquest, 1095-1492,   pp. 396-456 PDF (25.3 MB)

Page 397

Spanish and Portuguese reconquest brought about by the confluence of three
great movements of historical change. 
 The first of these was the accelerating internal growth and expan sive thrust
of the Iberian Christian peoples, whose principal foci were in 1095 temporarily
aligned as the united kingdoms of Leon and Castile, with the former including
a county of Portugal on the verge 
Mohammedan Dynasties in Spain, 2 vols., London, 1840—1843, II); and
Ibn-Khaldün, Kitãb al-'ibar (tr. W. McG. de Slane, Histoire des
Berbères, 3 vols., Algiers, 1852—1856; Iberian sections, Sp.
tr. by 0. Machado, in Cuadernos de historia de España, IV, VI—VIII,
1946— 1947). Numerous Moslem sources are extracted in C. Sanchez Albornoz,
La España musulmana (2 vols., Buenos Aires, 1946). 
 Aside from the collaborative La Reconquista espanola y la repoblacion del
pals (Saragossa, 1951), A. Huici Miranda, Las Grandes batallas de la Reconquista
durante las invasiones africanas (Madrid, 1956), and J. Goñi Gaztambide,
Historia de la Bula de la Cruzada en Espana (Vitoria, 1958), reconquest history
has to be pieced together from pertinent sections of general works or numerous
specialized studies. In the former category the most useful are (i) for Spain:
P. Aguado Bleye, Manual de historia espaflola (9th ed., 3 vols., Madrid,
1963—1 964), I—lI; A. Ballesteros y Beretta,Historia deEspana
(2nd ed., 11 vols., Barcelona, 1943—1956), Il—Ill; L. Garcia
de Valdeavellano, Historia de Espana (4th ed., Madrid, 1968), I, part 2 (to
1212); and R. Menéndez Pidal, ed., Historia de España (Madrid,
1935—), vols. XIV—XVII available (14th—15th centuries);
(ii) for the Crown of Aragon: J. Zurita, Anales de la Corona de AragOn (6
vols., Saragossa, 1562—1580); J. M. Lacarra, "Aragón en el pasado,"
in J. M. Casas Torres, J. M. Lacarra, and F. Estapé Rodriguez, AragOn,
cuatro ensayos (2 vols., Saragossa, 1960), pp. 125—304; and F. Soldevila,
HistOria de Catalunya (2nd ed., 3 vols., Barcelona, 1962), 1; and (iii) for
Portugal: A. Herculano, História de Portugal (9th ed., 8 vols., Lisbon,
n.d.); F. de Almeida, HistOria de Portugal (6 vols., Coimbra, 1922—1929),
I—lI; História de Portugal (ed. D. Peres, 8 vols., Barcelos,
1928—1935), II; L. Gonzaga de Azevedo, História de Portugal
(6 vols., Lisbon, 1935— 1944); and H. Livermore, A History of Portugal
(Cambridge, 1947). See also the encyclopedic Diccionario de historia de Espafla
(ed. G. Bleiberg, 2nd ed., 3 vols., Madrid, 1968—1969) and Dicionário
de historia de Portugal (ed. J. Serrão, 4 vols., Lisbon, 1963—1971).
On the Moslem side, H. Terrasse, Histoire du Maroc (2 vols., Casablanca,
1949—1 950), and Ch. A. Julien, Histoire de l'Afrique du nord (2nd
ed., Paris, 1951—1952; trans. John Petrie as History of North Africa,
London and New York, 1970), treat Iberian affairs; and the Encyclopaedia
of Islam (Leyden, 1930—1 942; 2nd ed., Leyden and London, 1960—)
contains many relevant entries. Pending appearance of a general history of
Moslem Spain after 1100, see I. de las Cagigas, Minorlas étnico-religiosas
de la edad media española (4 vols., Madrid, 1947—1949), III-IV.
 Reconquest treaties are calendared, with reference to published texts, in
J. Lopez Oliván, Repertorio diplomdtico español (Madrid, 1944).
On institutional, military, and social organization, consult L. Garcia de
Valdeavellano, Historia de las instituciones espaflolas (Madrid, 1968) and
H. de Gama Barros, História da administracao püblica em Portugal
nos séculos XII a XV (2nd ed., 11 vols., Lisbon, 1945—1954).
On ecclesiastical aspects, Goñi Gaztambide, op. cit., is indispensable
for papal and conciliar topics. Cf. also A. de J. da Costa, "Cruzada, Bula
da," Dicionário de história de Portugal, I, 755—757.
 On the debate over the significance of the reconquest in Iberian history
may be cited: J. A. Maravall, El Concepto de Espana en la edad media (Madrid,
1954), chapter 5; A. Castro, La Realidad de la historia de Espana (4th ed.,
Mexico City, 1971; Eng. tr., based on a previous edition, The Structure of
Spanish History, Princeton, 1954), chapters 5—8; C. Sanchez Albornoz,
España: un enigma historico (2nd ed., 2 vols., Buenos Aires, 1962),
especially II, 9 ff.; and C. Erdmanñ, "Der Kreuzzugsgedanke in Portugal,"
Historische Zeitschrift, CXLI (1929—1930), 23—53. 

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