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Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The fourteenth and fifteenth centuries
(1975)

I: The Crusade in the Fourteenth Century,   pp. 2-26 ff. PDF (9.6 MB)


Page 26

 26 A HISTORY OF THE CRUSADES III 
perfectio, to ensure victory for his three "estates" of kings, nobility,
and bourgeoisie, equivalent to the classes of commanders, cavalry, and infantry
in the forthcoming campaigns against "miscreants." Again, Philip preaches
peace and goodwill among all Christians of the west, and he advises the duke
of Burgundy, the kings of France and England, and all good Catholics to join
forces to avenge their humil iation in the east and restore the birthplace
of Christ to Rome. But Philip of Mézières was, to use his own
words, an old dreamer—a voice from the past in a world of change. The
crusade of Nicopolis was the last serious attempt by western Europe at united
offensive action of the traditional kind in the history of the holy war against
Islam. 


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