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Zacour, N. P.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The impact of the Crusades on Europe
(1989)

VIII: The Crusade of Varna,   pp. 276-310 PDF (14.1 MB)


Page 278

 278 A HISTORY OF THE CRUSADES 
evolved during four centuries of Turkish invasions. Bayazid conquered and
annexed the two largest of these states, Karaman (1397) and Sivas (1398),
thereby extending an empire that stretched from the Euphrates to the Danube.
provides a fairly reliable chronology of events. Sadeddin (1536—1599)
wrote a universal history entitled Crown of History, relying heavily on Neshri
and valuable for the policies of Murad II; part of his history was translated
into French by Antoine Galland in the 18th century as Annales ottomanes,
and exists in manuscript in the Bibliotheque nationale, Salle des manuscrits,
Fonds francais 6074 and 6075. 
 For the struggle with the Turks in Hungary before varna see Beckmann, Der
Kampf Kaiser Sigmunds gegen die werdende Weltmacht der Osmanen, 1392-1437(Gotha,
1902), and Wilhelm Wostry, KönigAlbrecht II., 1437-1439(2 vols. in Prager
Studien aus dem Gebiete der Geschichtswissenschaft, XII and XIII; Prague,
1906—1907). In addition to the older multivolume works on Ottoman history
by Iorga and Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall, valuable recent studies are Halil
Inalcik, The Ottoman Empire: the Classical Age, 1300-1600, tr. Norman Itzkowitz
and Cohn Imber (New York, 1973), and Ernst Werner, Die Geburt einer Grossmacht:
die Osmanen (Berlin, 1966). Three articles give insight into the methods
and objectives of Turkish conquest: David Angelov, "Certains Aspects de la
conquëte des peuples balkaniques par les Turcs," Byzantinoslavica, XVII
(1956), 220-275; Omer LUtfi Barkan, "Les Deportations comme méthode
de peuplement et de colonisation dans l'empire ottoman," Revue de la Faculté
des sciences économiques de l'Université d'Istanbul, XI (1949—1950),
67—131; and Inalcik, "Ottoman Methods of Conquest," Studia Islamica,
11(1954), 103—129. 
 For Cesarini's life see Paul Becker, Giuliano Cesarini (Kallmünz, 1935);
Heinrich Fechner, Giuliano Cesarini, 1398—1444: bis zur seinerAnkunft
in Base! am 9. September 1431 (Marburg, 1907); Ernest E Jacob, "Giuhiano
Cesarini," Bulletin of the John Rylands Library, LI (1968), 104—121;
Roger Mols, "Juhien Cesarini," Dictionnaire d'histoire et de geographie ecclésiastiques,
XII (1953), cols. 220—249; the funeral oration of Poggio Bracciolini
in Angelo Mai, ed., Spicilegium romanum, X (1844), 374-385; and Vespasiano
da Bisticci, The Vespasiano Memoirs: 
Lives of Illustrious Men of the Fifteenth Century, tr. William George and
Emily Waters (London, 1926). 
 A careful study of Polish objectives in 1440 is vincenz Zarkzewski, Wladislaw
III. Konigs von Polen Erhebung auf den ungarischen Thron (Leipzig, 1867).
For the diplomatic negotiations see David Angyal, "Die diplomatische vorbereitung
der Schlacht von Varna (1444)," Ungarische Rundschau fur historische und
soziale Wissenschaften, 11(1913), 518—524. See Franz Babinger, "Von
Amurath zu Amurath: Vor- und Nachspiel der Schlacht bei Varna, 1444," Oriens,
III (1950), 229—265 (repr. in his Aufsatze undAbhandlungen zur Geschichte
Sudosteuropas..., I, Munich, 1962), for the abdication of Murad II. For the
battles and expeditions see Alfons Huber, "Die Kriege zwischen Ungarn und
den Türken, 1440-1443," Archiv für österreichische Geschichte,
LXVIII (1886), 159-207, and Leopold Kupelwieser, Die Kampfe Ungarns mit den
Osmanen bis zur Schlacht bei Mohdcs (1526), 2nd ed. (Vienna, 1899). 
 For discussions of the alleged peace of Szegedin see Angyal, "Le Traité
de paix de Szeged avec les Turcs (1444)," Revue de Hongrie, VII (1911), 255—268;
Jan Dabrowski, "L'Année 1444," Bulletin international de l~4cadémie
polonaise des sciences et des lettres: Classe d'histoire et de philosophie,
supp. no. 6 (Cracow, 1951); Francisc Pall, "Autour de la croisade de Varna:
ha question de la paix de Szeged et de sa rupture (1444)," AR, BSH, XXII
(1941), 144-158; and Oskar Halecki, The Crusade of Varna: a Discussion of
Controversial Problems (New York, 1943). For the letters and reports of Ciriaco
see Pall, "Ciriaco d'Ancona e ha crociata contro i Turchi," AR, BSH, XX (1938),
57—68. For the politics of Alfonso V of Aragon see Francesco Cerone,
"La Politica orientahe di Alfonso di Aragona," Archivio storico per leprovincie
napoletane, XXVII (1902), 3—93, 380—456, 555—634, 774—852,
and XXVIII (1903), 154—212; Constantin Marinescu, "Alphonse V, roi
d'Aragon et de Naples, et I'Albanie de Scanderbeg," Mélanges de l'Ecole
roumaine en France, I (Paris, 1923), 7—135; and three articles by Pall:
"Les Relations entre ha Hon 


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