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Zacour, N. P.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The impact of the Crusades on Europe
(1989)

VIII: The Crusade of Varna,   pp. 276-310 PDF (14.1 MB)


Page 277

1. See Halil Inalcik, chapter VII, above.Ch. VIII THE CRUSADE OF VARNA 277
vassal states, while sultan Bayazid I concentrated on consolidating his control
over Anatolia, in which the Ottoman state had emerged as the most powerful
among the many Turkish principalities.' Consolidation meant conquest of the
Selchükid and Turcoman emirates that had 
enna, 1955), and Johannes Janssen, ed., Frankfurts Reichscorrespondenz, 1376—1519
(Freiburg, 1864—1872), for reports of Albert's campaigns. 
 Documentary material relating to Poland has been edited by Augustin Theiner
in three important series: Vetera monumenta historica Hungariam sacram illustrantia
(2 vols., Rome, 1859—1860), Vetera monumenta Poloniae et Lithuaniae
(4 vols., Rome, 1860-1864), and Vetera monumenta Slavorum meridionalium historiam
illustrantia (2 vols., Rome, 1863—1875). August Soko~'owski and Joseph
Szujski, eds., Monumenta medii aevi historica res gestas Poloniae illustrantia
(19 vols., Cracow, 1874—1927; repr. New York and London, 1965) contain
Il-i, 2 (1876), XII (1891), XIV (1894), Codex epistolaris saeculi decimi
quint!, vol. I-i: ann. 1384—1444, ed. Sokorowski; vol. 1-2: ann. 1444-1492,
ed. Szujski; vol. 2: ann. 1385—1445, ed. Anatoli Lewicki; vol. 3: ann.
1392—1501, ed. Lewicki. See also August Cieszkowski, ed., Fontes rerum
polonicarum e tabulario reipublicae venetae, series I, fasc. 2, Acta Vladislao
Jagiellonicae regnante (Posen, 1890). 
 The most important narrative source for the history of Poland in this period
is Jan Drugosz, Historiapolonica (2 vols., Leipzig, 1711—1712). Drugosz
(1415—1480) was secretary to bishop Zbigniew Ole~nicki, a conciliarist
opposed to Eugenius's policies, a view that is reflected in D1~ugosz's work,
written at the bishop's request. Another historian of Poland, Martin Kromer,
wrote a history of Poland inspired by lMugosz, De Origine et rebus gestis
Polonorum (Basel, 1559). Kromer was secretary to bishop Peter Gamrat of Cracow
(1538—1545) and then to prince Sigismund Augustus, and in a position
to use archival material. 
 Filippo Buonaccorsi of San Gimignano (1437—1496), called Callimachus,
was educated in Rome and fled to Poland when implicated in a plot against
pope Paul II. He lived in the house of Gregory of Sanok, became Latin tutor
to the princes of Poland, and wrote a life of Ole~nicki and a history of
the reign of Vladislav III, Philippi Callimachi experientis historia rerum
gestarum in Hungaria et contra Thrcos per Viadislaum Poloniae et Hungariae
regem, ed. Saturnin Kwiatkowski (Monumenta Poloniae historica, VI; Cracow,
1893), 19—162, and Irmina Lichoñska, ed., Historia de rege Vladislao
(Zaklad Nau o Kulturze Antycsnej PAN. Bibliotheca latina medii et recentioris
aevi, III, Warsaw, 1959). 
 Of the Hungarian sources Janós Thurocz (Johannes de Thwrocz), a prothonotary
at the court of Matthias Corvinus, wrote a history of Hungary, Chronica Hungarorum
(Vienna, 1711, in Scriptores rerum Hungaricarum, I, and a Hungarian edition,
ed. László Geréb, in Monumenta Hungarica, Budapest,
1957); although it was based on contemporary sources, it is not always reliable.
A more accurate source is Antonio Bonfini, Historia Pannonica: sive Hungaricarum
rerum decades IV et dimidia (Cologne, 1690), a history of Hungary to 1496,
the first thirty chapters of which survive. 
 A fascinating memoir of the civil war in Hungary by Elizabeth's lady-in-waiting
is Aus den Denkwürdigkeiten der Helene Kottannerin, 1439—1440,
ed. Stephan E L. Endlicher (Leipzig, 1846). Some interesting reactions to
the Turkish incursions in Transylvania are in Franz Zimmerman and Carl Werner,
eds., Urkundenbuch zur Geschichte der Deutschen in Siebenbürgen (4 vols.,
Hermannstadt, 1892-1937). For Ragusan-Hungarian relations see József
Gelcich and Lajos Thallóczy, eds., Diplomatarium relationum reipublicae
ragusanae cum regno Hungariae (Budapest, 1887). 
 The Ottoman sources for this period are sparse, and those which speak of
Varna add relatively little; see chapter VII, above, for their evidence.
Idris wrote a history in Persian from 1310 to his own time in 1502 entitled
Eight Paradises (Hasht Bihisht) at the request of sultan Selim I. Neshri
wrote a history, Gihannüma: die altosmanische Chronik des Mevlãna
Mehemmed Neschri, ed. Theodor Menzel and Franz G. Taeschner (2 vols., Leipzig,
1951—1955), which 


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