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Zacour, N. P.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The impact of the Crusades on Europe
(1989)

VII: The Ottoman Turks and the Crusades, 1329-1451,   pp. 222-275 PDF (24.1 MB)


Page 261

 Ch. VII THE OTTOMAN TURKS AND THE CRUSADES, 1329-1451 261 
 In April 1428 a strong army of twenty-five to thirty thousand Hungarians
and six thousand Wallachians under voivode Dan II, as well as Lithuanian
contingents, arrived before Golubats. The Turkish fleet on the Danube was
eliminated. Murad rushed with fresh forces to the aid of the hard-pressed
Golubats, and Sigismund decided not to risk a pitched battle as he had done
at Nicopolis in 1396. 
 A cease-fire for the retreat of the Hungarian army to the west side of the
Danube was agreed upon early in June 1428. Continued negotiations eventually
resulted in a three-year truce between the two powers. While Sigismund took
pains to explain to Venice and pope Martin V his reasons for making peace
with Murad, the Ottoman sultan in his turn tried to prove to sultan Barsbay
of Egypt (1422-1438) that the peace was necessary and that Serbia and Bosnia
were once again forced to recognize Islamic overlordship. 116 
 The Ottomans now controlled Serbia through their strongholds of Golubats
and Krushevats, as well as Ishak Beg's forces in Skoplje. Brankovich built
for himself a new capital at Smederevo (Semendria) between Golubats and Belgrade,117
and accepted full vassalage to the sultan — payment of a yearly tribute
of 50,000 gold ducats and provision of an auxiliary force of two thousand
for the sultan's expeditions. 
 Sigismund, taking advantage of the Ottoman crisis and the intensification
of the Ottoman pressure on the buffer states, resumed in the period 1421-1428
efforts to realize the plan of a Danubian empire originated by Louis the
Great. The struggle resulted in a compromise, or rather a postponement of
the question, because of the powerful Ottoman reaction. The Ottomans, when
they found themselves in a better position, would resume their aggressive
policy in the region against Hungary, and this would give rise to a series
of crusading activities in the west, on Hungarian initiative. 
 Disappointed by the armistice between the Hungarians and the Turks, Venice's
hopes revived when new developments threatened the Ottomans on their eastern
borders. During the Ottoman siege of Golubats the Karamanids, apparently
in collaboration with Hungary,'18 had moved against the Ottomans, forcing
Murad to surrender the muchdisputed Hamid area. Through the mediation of
the king of Cyprus, Janus (1398—1432), Venice entered into negotiations
for an alliance 
116. The sultan's letter is in FerIdUn, op. cit., I, 303—305. 
117. The anonymous TevârIkh gives the date as 831 (October 22, 1427—November
11, 1428). 
 118. István Katona, Historia critica.. . regum Hungariae: Stirpis
mixtae (12 vols., Pest et alibi, 1778—1810), V, 505, cited by lorga,
Notes et extraits, I, 505. 


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