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Zacour, N. P.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The impact of the Crusades on Europe
(1989)

VII: The Ottoman Turks and the Crusades, 1329-1451,   pp. 222-275 PDF (24.1 MB)


Page 255

 Ch. VII THE OTTOMAN TURKS AND THE CRUSADES, 1329-1451 255 
a pretender to the principality of Smyrna, had joined Mustafa in Rumelia.
The Ottoman state was again in danger of dissolution. 
 Under the circumstances, Murad's government at Bursa followed the same conciliatory
policy with the Christian states as his father's had in 1413. It was ready
to accept all the Byzantine demands, except the surrender to the emperor
of Gallipoli and of Mehmed's two infant sons as hostages. Murad made agreements
with Serbia and Hungary through his ambassadors as his father Mehmed I had
done against Musa, his rival in Rumelia in 1413. Venice approached both sides
to make the most of the situation. It wanted Venetian merchants to receive
the same treatment that they enjoyed in Constantinople and an export permit
for 10,000 modii (about 20,000 tons) of wheat annually from the Ottoman possessions.94
 In the final encounter near Bursa (end of January or early February 1422),
Mustafa lost the day as a result of the defection of the frontier begs and
of Juneyd, whom Murad recognized as sovereign in Smyrna. With the Genoese
ships brought by John Adorno, podestà of New Phocaea, Murad was able
to cross the Dardanelles and capture and execute his uncle in Adrianople.95
 In the spring the victorious sultan came to lay siege to Constantinople.
Supported by guns and a navy, this siege, from June 20 to September 6, 1422,
was the most serious theretofore made against the Byzantine capital. Venice
was alarmed, and took measures to protect its merchant ships trading with
the Black Sea ports from Ottoman naval forces. However, the proposal of a
naval demonstration against the sultan before Constantinople was rejected
by the senate. At this point the cautious doge Thomas Mocenigo (1414—1423)
tried to avoid a war against the Ottomans. His bailie in Constantinople,
Benedict Emo, was instructed to offer mediation for peace negotiations between
the sultan and the emperor.96 At any rate, military aid to Byzantium under
siege could not be sent before the following spring. But help came to Byzantium
from Anatolia. The Germiyanids, Karamanids, and Jandarids responded favorably
to a Byzantine diplomatic move for an attack on the Ottoman territories in
Anatolia. These Anatolian emirs convinced Ilyas, the tutor of Murad II's
brother Mustafa, who was then only thirteen years old and living in Germiyan,
to rebel and sent forces to support him.97 Upon hearing the news, following
an unsuc 
 94. Thiriet, Régestes, II, no. 1825, instructions to Benedict Emo
dated October 10, 1421. 
 95. Inalcik, "Murãd II," p. 60. 
 96. Thiriet, Régestes, II, nos. 1854, 1855, dated August 26, 1422.
 97. A newly discovered Ottoman source, Osman Turan, TarihI TakvImler (Ankara,
1954), pp. 20, 60, is particularly important for the younger Mustafa's activities;
cf. Ducas, tr. Magoulias, 


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