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Zacour, N. P.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The impact of the Crusades on Europe
(1989)

VII: The Ottoman Turks and the Crusades, 1329-1451,   pp. 222-275 PDF (24.1 MB)


Page 254

254 A HISTORY OF THE CRUSADES615. 93.For Murad II see Inalcik, "MurAd II,"
Islam Ansikiopedisi, VIII (Istanbul, 1960), 598— 
 Manuel's departure for Europe made the sultan furious,89 and he forthwith
demanded that John VII surrender the city. ~° A naval league against
the Ottomans comprising the Hospitallers, the Genoese of Chios, and James
Crispo, the duke of the Archipelago (1397- 1418), was then considered by
the Venetian senate.9' Byzantium's salvation, however, would come from the
east. In 1400 Timur captured Sivas, an Ottoman city since 1398, and on July
28, 1402, he defeated Bayazid at the battle of Ankara and made him a prisoner;92
he died in captivity a few months later, probably by suicide. 
 Between 1402 and 1413 Bayazid's Sons Suleiman (in Adrianople), Mehmed (at
Amasya), and ' Isa (at Bursa) fought for the succession. Their civil wars
kept them too weak and divided to threaten Constantinople, Venice, or Hungary,
which enjoyed the respite without making any serious effort to strengthen
their defenses against the inevitable resurgence of Ottoman power. The eventual
winner, Mehmed I, ruled for eight more years, but deliberately made no military
or diplomatic moves to destroy the unwonted calm. 
C. The Struggle for the Balkans, 1421-1451 
 During the civil war, however, Byzantium had learned the most efficient
way to check Ottoman aggressiveness and obtain concessions. At the accession
on June 25, 1421, of Mehmed I's son Murad II, who was declared sultan in
Bursa at the age of seventeen,93 Manuel II set Mustafa, Murad's uncle, free
in the Balkans, where he was joined by many leaders of the Ottoman forces,
including powerful frontier begs. 
 Mustafa had agreed to return to the emperor Gallipoli, the rich coastal
plains of Thrace, Thessaly, and the Black Sea coasts, thus restoring the
Byzantine empire to its boundaries prior to Bayazid I's conquests. The Turkish
dynasties in Anatolia, which Timur had restored to their principalities,
also rebelled against Murad II. The young sultan had to recognize the occupation
of Hamid-ili by the Karamanids. Juneyd, 
 89. See patriarch Matthias's letter, end of 1399, ibid., pp. 203—205.
 90. Thiriet, Régestes, II, no. 981. 
91. See lorga, Notes et extraits, I, 105—106, 115. 
 92. On Timur's campaign see Alexandrescu-Dersca, La Campagne de Timur en
A natolie (1402). 


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