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Zacour, N. P.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The impact of the Crusades on Europe
(1989)

VI: Social Evolution in Latin Greece,   pp. 175-221 PDF (18.9 MB)


Page 176

 176 A HISTORY OF THE CRUSADES 
best known. It began in the early thirteenth century, during and following
the Fourth Crusade, which was a turning-point in the political history of
Romania. Within a few years Frankish knights, the Venetian state, and several
Italian adventurers acting on their own behalf conquered extensive areas
of the Byzantine empire, some of which reAmong the sources reflecting the
structure and evolution of society in the feudalized areas 
of Latin Greece, the Assizes of Romania are the most important. This legal
treatise compiled in the Morea has been edited and translated into French
by Georges Recoura, Les Assises de Romanie (Paris, 1930); an English translation
and a study of it have been made by Topping, Feudal Institutions as Revealed
in the Assizes of Romania, the Law Code of Frankish Greece (Philadelphia,
1949). Corrections to the text and previous translations, as well as a thorough
study of the Assizes, have appeared in David Jacoby, La Féodalité
en Grèce médiévale: les ~4ssises de Romanie'~ Sources,
application et djfjusion (Paris, 1971); see also idem, "Les Archontes grecs
et la féodalité en Morée franque," Travaux et mémoires
du Centre de recherche d'histoire et civilisation byzantines, 11(1967), 421
-481, reprinted in his Société et démographie a Byzance
et en Romanie latine (XIIIe-XVe siècles) (London, 1975). 
 The Chronicle of the Morea presents a vivid description of feudal society
in the Morea. On the four versions of the Chronicle, of which the French
seems definitely to be the original, see Jacoby, "Quelques considerations
sur les versions de la ' Chronique de Morée'," Journal des Savants
(1968), pp. 133—189, reprinted in his Société et démographie
(cited above); see also M. J. Jeifreys, "The Chronicle of the Morea: Priority
of the Greek Version," Byzantinische Zeitschrift, LXVIII (1975), 304—350,
whose claim it is impossible to accept on historical grounds. Although at
times faulty, the chronicle of Marino Sanudo Torsello, "Istoria del regno
di Romania," in Charles (Carl) Hopf, Chroniques gréco-romanes inédites
ou peu connues (Berlin, 1873; repr. 1966), pp. 99—170, is an invaluable
source for the Morea and especially the Aegean lordships in the second half
of the thirteenth century. The letters of Sanudo provide evidence by a contemporary
till 1337, especially on Euboea: on their edition and dating see Jacoby,
"Catalans, Turcs et Vénitiens en Romanie (1305-1332): un nouveau témoignage
de Marino Sanudo Torsello," Studi medievali, ser. 3, XV (1974), 217—223.
 Documentary evidence on the Morea for the reigns of Charles I and Charles
II of Anjou, kings of Sicily, who from 1278 on interfered directly in the
life of the principality, is to be found in Riccardo Filangieri et aL, eds.,
I Registri della cancellaria angioina, vols. I—XXXII (Naples, 1950
if.), which supersedes all previous publications of documents from the Angevin
archives of Naples; for the period of Charles II see also Charles Perrat
and Longnon, Actes relatifs a laprincipauté de Morée, 1289-1300
(Paris, 1967). Longnon and Topping, Documents sur le régime des terres
dans la principauté de Morée au XIVe siècle (Paris,
1969), provides invaluable evidence on landholding, agricultural exploitation,
and the status of the peasantry, which corroborates the information found
in the Assizes of Romania; see also Jacoby's review in Byzantinische Zeitschrzft,
LXIX (1976), 87—92. Ernst Gerland, Neue Quellen zur Geschichte des
Iateinischen Erzbistums Patras (Leipzig, 1903), includes documents on the
Morea and Venetian Messenia dealing with similar problems. 
 In view of the position of Venice in the eastern Mediterranean and particularly
in Latin Greece, it is not surprising that Venetian documents should be of
utmost importance for the whole area. They await an exhaustive examination,
and most of them remain unpublished. Official documents or summaries thereof
are included in the following publications (only the main ones are mentioned
here): Urkunden zur älteren Handels- und Staatsgeschichte der Republik
Venedig mit besonderer Beziehung auf Byzanz und die Levante, ed. Gottlieb
L. E Tafel and Georg M. Thomas (Fontes rerum austriacarum, Diplomataria et
acta, XII—XIV; 3 vols., Vienna, 1856—1857; repr. Amsterdam, 1964),
and Roberto Cessi, Deliberazioni del Maggior Consiglio di Venezia (3 vols.,
Bologna, 1931-1950), up to 1300; Giuseppe Giomo, I Misti' delsenato della
republica veneta, 1293 —1331 (Venice, 1887). Georg M. Thomas and Riccardo
Predelli, Diploma- 


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