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Zacour, N. P.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The impact of the Crusades on Europe

IV: Financing the Crusades,   pp. 116-149 PDF (13.4 MB)

Page 143

known to have been sent to Alphonse after his departure from France, roughly
a fourth came from "graces". Along with the king and his brothers many crusaders
probably took aides and tailles.84 The participation of the maritime cities,
mercenary though it was for the most part, was presumably financed corporatively.
Yet crusaders like Joinyule still alienated their property for the expedition,
and not a few, among them great nobles, borrowed large sums of money from
Italian merchants in Cyprus, Egypt, and Syria.85 
 Other crusades of the thirteenth century followed the same pattern of finance.
For his crusade Frederick II took tax after tax from his subjects and especially
from the churches of his dominions, and since he took so ' ~iall an army
with him when he finally went, he probably spent in the Holy Land only a
fraction of what he collected. But in this as in so many things Frederick
was the great exception. Papal taxation of the clergy and other papal monies
provided much of the support for Richard of Cornwall in 1240 and for prince
Edward of England in 1270. Edward borrowed over 100,000 livres of Tours from
merchants of Cahors on the security of a clerical twentieth in England granted
in 1272, and a tenth was ordered collected in 1267 to reimburse Edward and
his brother Edmund for their crusade expenses. Edward also had a twentieth
of movables conceded by the English barons in 1269 that yielded over 125,000
livres. He received over 10,000 li. from the Jews; the royal demesnes were
tallaged; and in 1271 he was granted the revenues of all royal wardships
and escheats, the regalian rights to the revenues of vacant prelacies, and
the royal profits of justice. But he still had to pledge the customs of Bordeaux
for four years for an unknown sum and for seven years for a loan of 70,000
li. from Louis IX.86 Altogether, Edward may easily have spent more than half
a million livres on his crusade. Louis himself raised the money for his second
expedition as for the first: a tenth for three years from the French clergy
and a twentieth from the French-speaking parts of Lorraine and an aid from
the townsmen produced a great part of it. But he tried to recover a large
loan he had made to his brother, Charles I of Anjou, and doubtless he scraped
up every penny he could. Even 
 84. Edgard P. Boutaric, Saint Louis etAlfonse de Poitiers (Paris, 1870),
pp. 69—77, 279—317. 
 85. Layettes du trésor des chartes, III, nos. 3769—3771, 3800,
3811, 3821, 3823, 3827, 3948, 
3954, 3960. 
 86. Trabut-Cussac, "Le Financement de la croisade anglaise," p. 121; Mitchell,
Studies in Taxation under John and Henry III (New Haven, 1914), 295-299;
Frederick M. Powicke, King Henry III and the Lord Edward, 2 vols. (Oxford,
1947), II, 561-569; Simon Lloyd, "The Lord Edward's Crusade, 1270-2," in
War and Government in the Middle Ages, ed. John Gillingham and James C. Holt
(Totowa, N.J., 1984), p. 132. The money of Tours, livres tournois, is meant
wherever li. is used. 

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