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Zacour, N. P.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The impact of the Crusades on Europe
(1989)

IV: Financing the Crusades,   pp. 116-149 PDF (13.4 MB)


Page 142

 142 A HISTORY OF THE CRUSADES 
had sent him approximately 100,000 marks,8° and in time his position
became strong enough to enable him to lead the army to its defeat. Until
that last fatal march, however, he had strong competition from other leaders
whose finances were largely independent of the papacy: the king of Jerusalem,
the masters of the crusading orders, and princes like the duke of Austria,
Leopold VI. Oliver of Paderborn took pride in the well-supplied contingent
of crusaders from his region of Cologne, and when he speaks of a "common
treasury" under the legate's control, this cannot be taken to mean that the
crusaders pooled all their resources. The spoils of Damietta, it is certain,
were divided among the various leaders of the crusade. 81 The legate's treasury
must have been filled for the most part with money from the pope, although
other crusaders contributed to it. 82 Since the legate controlled no more
than a fraction of the financial resources of the crusade, the ideal papal
crusade failed of realization in its financing as it did in its military
goal. 
 Later popes abandoned the principle of papal command of the crusades. They
continued and extended taxation of the clergy and the collection of alms,
legacies, and redemptions, but they granted the proceeds of these financial
measures to lay crusaders. "Apostolic graces", as the papal grants were called,
formed a prized source of support for the later thirteenth-century crusades.
For his first crusade in 1248, Louis IX received all the crusade monies derived
from alms, legacies, redemptions, usuries, and especially the tenth levied
on the clergy of France, Lorraine, and Burgundy — all, that is, which
the pope did not specifically grant to other crusaders. The king also collected
aides from his vassals and tailles from his non-noble subjects. He presumably
had savings to spend on the crusade plus as much of his annual revenues as
he could persuade his mother, regent in his absence, to send to him.83 The
king was the greatest and the richest single crusader in the army, but his
wealth, even with the backing of the church, was insufficient to finance
the crusade entire. The Templars and Hospitallers provided large contingents
of troops who represented another part of the corporative financial program
of the church. Many crusaders other than the king received money from the
church, notably his brothers Alphonse, count of Poitiers, and Robert, count
of Artois; of monies 
80. MGH, Epistolae saeculi XIII, I, no. 124. 
 81. AOL, II~2, 166. William of Chartres was master of the Temple; Garin
of Montaigu, of the Hospital. 
 82. MGH, Epistolae saeculi XIII, I, no. 124; Wentworth S. Morris, "A Crusader's
Testament," Speculum, XXVII (1952), 197: "to the treasury of the Commune
of the Army one bezant." 
 83. Berger, Saint Louis et Innocent IV (Paris, 1893), pp. 185—207.


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